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      Amendments to saline-sodic soils showed long-term effects on improving growth and yield of rice ( Oryza sativa L.)

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          Abstract

          Background

          Saline-sodic soils are widely distributed in arid and semi-arid regions around the world. High levels of salt and sodium inhibit the growth and development of crops. However, there has been limited reports on both osmotic potential in soil solutions (OP ss) and characteristics of Na + and K + absorption in rice in saline-sodic soils under various amendments application.

          Methods

          A field experiment was conducted between 2009 and 2017 to analyze the influence of amendments addition to saline-sodic soils on rice growth and yield. Rice was grown in the soil with no amendment (CK), with desulfurization gypsum (DG), with sandy soil (SS), with farmyard manure (FM) and with the mixture of above amendments (M). The osmotic potential in soil solution, selective absorption of K + over Na + (SA), selective transport of K + over Na + (ST), the distribution of K + and Na +and yield components in rice plants were investigated.

          Results

          The results indicated that amendments application have positive effects on rice yield. The M treatment was the best among the tested amendments with the highest rice grain yield. M treatment increased the OP ss values significantly to relieve the inhibition of the water uptake by plants. Additionally, the M treatment significantly enhanced K + concentration and impeded Na + accumulation in shoots. SA values were reduced while ST values were increased for all amendments. In conclusion, a mixture of desulfurization gypsum, sandy soil and farmyard manure was the best treatment for the improvement of rice growth and yield in the Songnen Plain, northeast China.

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          Most cited references 56

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          Na+ tolerance and Na+ transport in higher plants.

           M. Tester (2003)
          Tolerance to high soil [Na(+)] involves processes in many different parts of the plant, and is manifested in a wide range of specializations at disparate levels of organization, such as gross morphology, membrane transport, biochemistry and gene transcription. Multiple adaptations to high [Na(+)] operate concurrently within a particular plant, and mechanisms of tolerance show large taxonomic variation. These mechanisms can occur in all cells within the plant, or can occur in specific cell types, reflecting adaptations at two major levels of organization: those that confer tolerance to individual cells, and those that contribute to tolerance not of cells per se, but of the whole plant. Salt-tolerant cells can contribute to salt tolerance of plants; but we suggest that equally important in a wide range of conditions are processes involving the management of Na(+) movements within the plant. These require specific cell types in specific locations within the plant catalysing transport in a coordinated manner. For further understanding of whole plant tolerance, we require more knowledge of cell-specific transport processes and the consequences of manipulation of transporters and signalling elements in specific cell types.
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            K+Nutrition and Na+Toxicity: The Basis of Cellular K+/Na+Ratios

             F MAATHUIS (1999)
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              Low-affinity Na+ uptake in the halophyte Suaeda maritima.

              Na(+) uptake by plant roots has largely been explored using species that accumulate little Na(+) into their shoots. By way of contrast, the halophyte Suaeda maritima accumulates, without injury, concentrations of the order of 400 mM NaCl in its leaves. Here we report that cAMP and Ca(2+) (blockers of nonselective cation channels) and Li(+) (a competitive inhibitor of Na(+) uptake) did not have any significant effect on the uptake of Na(+) by the halophyte S. maritima when plants were in 25 or 150 mM NaCl (150 mM NaCl is near optimal for growth). However, the inhibitors of K(+) channels, TEA(+) (10 mM), Cs(+) (3 mM), and Ba(2+) (5 mM), significantly reduced the net uptake of Na(+) from 150 mM NaCl over 48 h, by 54%, 24%, and 29%, respectively. TEA(+) (10 mM), Cs(+) (3 mM), and Ba(2+) (1 mm) also significantly reduced (22)Na(+) influx (measured over 2 min in 150 mM external NaCl) by 47%, 30%, and 31%, respectively. In contrast to the situation in 150 mm NaCl, neither TEA(+) (1-10 mM) nor Cs(+) (0.5-10 mM) significantly reduced net Na(+) uptake or (22)Na(+) influx in 25 mM NaCl. Ba(2+) (at 5 mm) did significantly decrease net Na(+) uptake (by 47%) and (22)Na(+) influx (by 36% with 1 mM Ba(2+)) in 25 mM NaCl. K(+) (10 or 50 mM) had no effect on (22)Na(+) influx at concentrations below 75 mM NaCl, but the influx of (22)Na(+) was inhibited by 50 mM K(+) when the external concentration of NaCl was above 75 mM. The data suggest that neither nonselective cation channels nor a low-affinity cation transporter are major pathways for Na(+) entry into root cells. We propose that two distinct low-affinity Na(+) uptake pathways exist in S. maritima: Pathway 1 is insensitive to TEA(+) or Cs(+), but sensitive to Ba(2+) and mediates Na(+) uptake under low salinities (25 mM NaCl); pathway 2 is sensitive to TEA(+), Cs(+), and Ba(2+) and mediates Na(+) uptake under higher external salt concentrations (150 mM NaCl). Pathway 1 might be mediated by a high-affinity K transporter-type transporter and pathway 2 by an AKT1-type channel.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                PeerJ
                PeerJ
                PeerJ
                PeerJ
                PeerJ
                PeerJ Inc. (San Diego, USA )
                2167-8359
                10 March 2020
                2020
                : 8
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Northeast Institute of Geography and Agroecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) , Changchun, China
                [2 ]University of Chinese Academy of Sciences , Beijing, China
                [3 ]Research Institute for Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences , Budapest, Hungary
                Article
                8726
                10.7717/peerj.8726
                7069413
                © 2020 Zhao et al.

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, reproduction and adaptation in any medium and for any purpose provided that it is properly attributed. For attribution, the original author(s), title, publication source (PeerJ) and either DOI or URL of the article must be cited.

                Funding
                Funded by: National Key Research & Development Program of China
                Award ID: 2016YFC0501200
                Funded by: National Natural Science Foundation of China
                Award ID: 41571210 and 41771250
                Funded by: Science-technology Development Initiative of Jilin Province
                Award ID: 20180201012SF
                Funded by: CAS President’s International Fellowship Initiative, PIFI
                This work was supported by the National Key Research & Development Program of China (No. 2016YFC0501200), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 41571210 and 41771250), the Science-technology Development Initiative of Jilin Province (No. 20180201012SF), and CAS President’s International Fellowship Initiative, PIFI. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.
                Categories
                Agricultural Science
                Food Science and Technology
                Plant Science
                Soil Science
                Nutrition

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