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      Reporting Guidelines and Issues to Consider for Using Intracranial Brain Stimulation in Studies of Human Declarative Memory

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          Abstract

          Participants with stimulating and recording electrodes implanted within the brain for clinical evaluation and treatment provide a rare opportunity to unravel the neuronal correlates of human memory, as well as offer potential for modulation of behavior. Recent intracranial stimulation studies of memory have been inconsistent in methodologies employed and reported conclusions, which renders generalizations and construction of a framework impossible. In an effort to unify future study efforts and enable larger meta-analyses we propose in this mini-review a set of guidelines to consider when pursuing intracranial stimulation studies of human declarative memory and summarize details reported by previous relevant studies. We present technical and safety issues to consider when undertaking such studies and a checklist for researchers and clinicians to use for guidance when reporting results, including targeting, placement, and localization of electrodes, behavioral task design, stimulation and electrophysiological recording methods, details of participants, and statistical analyses. We hope that, as research in invasive stimulation of human declarative memory further progresses, these reporting guidelines will aid in setting standards for multicenter studies, in comparison of findings across studies, and in study replications.

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          Most cited references 46

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          Targeting abnormal neural circuits in mood and anxiety disorders: from the laboratory to the clinic.

          Recent decades have witnessed tremendous advances in the neuroscience of emotion, learning and memory, and in animal models for understanding depression and anxiety. This review focuses on new rationally designed psychiatric treatments derived from preclinical human and animal studies. Nonpharmacological treatments that affect disrupted emotion circuits include vagal nerve stimulation, rapid transcranial magnetic stimulation and deep brain stimulation, all borrowed from neurological interventions that attempt to target known pathological foci. Other approaches include drugs that are given in relation to specific learning events to enhance or disrupt endogenous emotional learning processes. Imaging data suggest that common regions of brain activation are targeted with pharmacological and somatic treatments as well as with the emotional learning in psychotherapy. Although many of these approaches are experimental, the rapidly developing understanding of emotional circuit regulation is likely to provide exciting and powerful future treatments for debilitating mood and anxiety disorders.
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            Patterned stimulation at the theta frequency is optimal for the induction of hippocampal long-term potentiation.

            Short, high frequency stimulation bursts (4 pulses at 100 Hz) were applied to Schaffer/commissural projections to the CA1 field of rat hippocampal slices at 0.1, 0.2, 1.0 or 2.0-s intervals to assess their efficacy in eliciting long-term potentiation (LTP). Bursts repeated at 2-s intervals induced very little LTP; shorter repetition intervals reliably elicited LTP, with the 200-ms repetition interval producing the greatest potentiation. A short-term potentiation effect, which was maximal 20 s after the last burst and decayed within 10 min, was affected differently by the stimulation parameters than was LTP, suggesting that the two phenomena are due to different processes. The results indicate that patterns of stimulation resembling spike discharge patterns of hippocampal neurons in animals in exploratory situations are effective in inducing LTP and suggest temporal constraints on the mechanisms involved in triggering synaptic plasticity.
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              Memory enhancement induced by hypothalamic/fornix deep brain stimulation.

              Bilateral hypothalamic deep brain stimulation was performed to treat a patient with morbid obesity. We observed, quite unexpectedly, that stimulation evoked detailed autobiographical memories. Associative memory tasks conducted in a double-blinded "on" versus "off" manner demonstrated that stimulation increased recollection but not familiarity-based recognition, indicating a functional engagement of the hippocampus. Electroencephalographic source localization showed that hypothalamic deep brain stimulation drove activity in mesial temporal lobe structures. This shows that hypothalamic stimulation in this patient modulates limbic activity and improves certain memory functions.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Front Neurosci
                Front Neurosci
                Front. Neurosci.
                Frontiers in Neuroscience
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                1662-4548
                1662-453X
                04 December 2018
                2018
                : 12
                Affiliations
                [1] 1Department of Psychiatry and Biobehavioral Sciences, David Geffen School of Medicine, Jane and Terry Semel Institute for Neuroscience and Human Behavior, UCLA , Los Angeles, CA, United States
                [2] 2Department of Neurosurgery, David Geffen School of Medicine, UCLA , Los Angeles, CA, United States
                [3] 3UCLA , Los Angeles, CA, United States
                [4] 4IDRE Statistical Consulting Group, UCLA , Los Angeles, CA, United States
                Author notes

                Edited by: Jonathan Miller, University Hospitals Cleveland Medical Center, United States

                Reviewed by: Pierre Mégevand, Université de Genève, Switzerland; J. Luis Lujan, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine and Science, United States

                *Correspondence: Nanthia Suthana nsuthana@ 123456mednet.ucla.edu

                This article was submitted to Neuroprosthetics, a section of the journal Frontiers in Neuroscience

                Article
                10.3389/fnins.2018.00905
                6288473
                5e9cc73e-5e5a-47b5-9e02-ef2d4898d6f0
                Copyright © 2018 Suthana, M. Aghajan, Mankin and Lin.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 1, Equations: 0, References: 59, Pages: 10, Words: 7305
                Funding
                Funded by: National Institutes of Health 10.13039/100000002
                Award ID: NS103802
                Award ID: NS058280
                Funded by: A.P. Giannini Foundation 10.13039/100002112
                Categories
                Neuroscience
                Mini Review

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