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      ANCA Testing in Monitoring the Activity of the Disease

      Kidney and Blood Pressure Research

      S. Karger AG

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          Most cited references 7

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          Prediction of relapses in Wegener's granulomatosis by measurement of antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody levels: a prospective study.

          Prediction of relapses in Wegener's granulomatosis (WG) by measuring levels of antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) directed against proteinase 3 (PR3) or myeloperoxidase (MPO) remains a controversial issue. To assess the value of serial quantification of ANCA by indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) and antigen-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for monitoring disease activity in patients with WG, a prospective observational study was conducted in patients with WG attending an outpatient clinic in the Netherlands. One hundred patients with WG (85 with PR3-ANCA, 15 with MPO-ANCA) were studied prospectively from 1996 to 1998. Serum samples were obtained and analyzed every 2 months for ANCA levels. Disease activity was prospectively assessed without knowledge of the ANCA levels. Relapses occurred in 37 of 100 patients (37%). Thirty-four (92%) of the 37 patients showed a rise in the level of ANCA preceding their relapse, as detected by ELISA or IIF. The predictive value of an increase in ANCA titers for relapse was 57% (17 of 30) for cytoplasmic/classic ANCA (cANCA; by IIF), 71% (27 of 38) for PR3-ANCA (by ELISA), and 100% (3 of 3) for MPO-ANCA (by ELISA). The predictive value of a rise in ANCA as measured by ELISA or IIF did not substantially improve following concomitant measurement of the IgG3 subclass of PR3-ANCA. Forty-three percent of patients who showed a rise in cANCA (by IIF) and 29% with a rise in PR3-ANCA (by ELISA) did not subsequently experience a relapse. Serial measurement of ANCA levels is valuable for the early prediction of relapses in patients with WG.
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            Association between active Wegener's granulomatosis and anticytoplasmic antibodies.

            Autoantibodies reacting with the cytoplasm of granulocytes and monocytes (anticytoplasmic antibodies [ACPAs]) were found in 42 of 45 patients with active Wegener's granulomatosis (WG) (sensitivity, 93%). Specificity was tested in selected groups of patients with closely related diseases. Of 58 patients without a diagnosis of WG, 2 had ACPAs (specificity, 97%). The significance of ACPA titration for assessing or predicting disease activity was evaluated in a 16-month prospective study of 35 patients with WG. Seventeen relapses were observed and all were preceded by a significant rise of the ACPA titer. Anticytoplasmic antibodies are a specific and sensitive marker for active WG; a rising titer is a sensitive marker for the development of a relapse.
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              Fcgamma receptor polymorphisms in Wegener's granulomatosis: risk factors for disease relapse.

              Several studies have recently identified polymorphisms of receptors for the Fc fragment of IgG (FcgammaR) as genetic factors influencing susceptibility to multiple autoimmune and infectious diseases. This genetic predisposition could also influence the expression of Wegener's granulomatosis (WG), a systemic autoimmune disease with chronic nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus as an important risk factor for disease relapses. Therefore, we analyzed 3 functional FcgammaR polymorphisms from 91 patients with WG and 154 controls for a possible relationship with disease expression and occurrence of relapses. FcgammaR phenotypes were determined using amplification of FcgammaR-genomic regions in allotype-specific polymerase chain reactions. Of particular interest in the analysis were 2 allotypic forms of FcgammaRIIa (R131 or H131) and 2 allotypic forms of FcgammaRIIIa (V158 or F158), all of which are functionally different. Analysis of FcgammaR phenotypes demonstrated that patients with WG were more prone to disease relapse in the first 5 years after diagnosis if they were homozygous for both the R131 form of FcgammaRIIa and the F158 form of FcgammaRIIIa (relative risk 3.3, 95% confidence interval 1.6-6.8). These polymorphisms are both associated with decreased FcR-mediated clearance, which may be relevant to the chronic nasal carriage of S aureus. Both the R/H131 polymorphism of FcgammaRIIa and the V/F158 polymorphism of FcgammaRIIIa represent heritable risk factors for the development of disease relapses in WG.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                KBR
                Kidney Blood Press Res
                10.1159/issn.1420-4096
                Kidney and Blood Pressure Research
                S. Karger AG
                1420-4096
                1423-0143
                2003
                2003
                24 September 2003
                : 26
                : 4
                : 226-230
                Affiliations
                Department of Clinical and Experimental Immunology, University Hospital Maastricht, Maastricht, The Netherlands
                Article
                72989 Kidney Blood Press Res 2003;26:226–230
                10.1159/000072989
                14504422
                © 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Tables: 3, References: 35, Pages: 5
                Product
                Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/72989
                Categories
                Short Review

                Cardiovascular Medicine, Nephrology

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