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      Covid-19 na América Latina: desigualdades e capacidades de resposta dos sistemas de saúde a emergências sanitárias Translated title: COVID-19 in Latin America: inequalities and response capacity of health systems to health emergencies Translated title: COVID-19 en América Latina: desigualdades y capacidad de respuesta de los sistemas de salud ante emergencias de salud

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          RESUMO

          Objetivo.

          Identificar correlações entre a covid-19, características demográficas e socioeconômicas e capacidade dos sistemas de saúde latino-americanos para resposta a emergências sanitárias.

          Método.

          Realizou-se um estudo ecológico, utilizando dados secundários de 20 países latino-americanos relativos a incidência, mortalidade, testagem e cobertura vacinal para covid-19 no período de 2020 a 2021, assim como informações demográficas e socioeconômicas. A preparação dos países para responder a emergências sanitárias foi explorada a partir do Relatório Anual de Autoavaliação dos Estados Partes da Organização Mundial da Saúde de 2019 sobre a implementação do Regulamento Sanitário Internacional (RSI). Realizaramse análises estatísticas por meio do teste de correlação de Spearman ( rho).

          Resultados.

          Observou-se correlação positiva alta do produto interno bruto per capita e do índice de desenvolvimento humano com incidência de covid-19, testagem e cobertura vacinal; e entre proporção da população idosa e cobertura vacinal. Não foram identificadas correlações entre os indicadores da covid-19 e as capacidades prévias de implementação do RSI.

          Conclusões.

          A ausência de correlação entre indicadores relativos à covid-19 e a capacidade de implementação do RSI pode estar relacionada a limites dos indicadores utilizados ou da ferramenta de acompanhamento do RSI como instrumento indutor da preparação dos países para enfrentamento de emergências sanitárias. Os resultados sugerem a importância de condicionantes estruturais e a necessidade de estudos longitudinais, comparativos e qualitativos para compreender os fatores que influenciaram a resposta dos países à covid-19.

          ABSTRACT

          Objective.

          To identify correlations between COVID-19, demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, and the capacity of Latin American health systems to respond to health emergencies.

          Method.

          An ecological study was performed using secondary data from 20 Latin American countries regarding incidence, mortality, testing and vaccination coverage for covid-19 from 2020 to 2021 as well as demographic and socioeconomic indicators. The preparedness of countries to respond to health emergencies was explored based on the 2019 State Party Self-Assessment Annual Report on the implementation of the International Health Regulations (IHR). Statistical analyses were performed using the Spearman correlation test (rho).

          Results.

          A high positive correlation was noted between gross domestic product per capita and the human development index with the incidence of COVID-19, testing, and vaccination coverage; and between the proportion of elderly population and vaccination coverage. No correlations were identified between the covid-19 indicators and previous IHR implementation capacities.

          Conclusions.

          The lack of correlation between indicators related to COVID-19 and the ability to implement the IHR may reflect limitations of the indicators used or of the IHR monitoring tool as an instrument that induces the preparedness of countries to face health emergencies. The results suggest the importance of structural conditioning factors and the need for longitudinal, comparative, and qualitative studies to understand the factors that influenced the response of countries to COVID-19.

          RESUMEN

          Objetivo.

          Determinar las posibles correlaciones entre la COVID-19, las características demográficas y socioeconómicas, y la capacidad de los sistemas de salud latinoamericanos para responder a emergencias de salud.

          Método.

          Se realizó un estudio ecológico con datos secundarios de 20 países latinoamericanos sobre la incidencia, la mortalidad, las pruebas y la cobertura de vacunación relativas a la COVID-19 en el período 2020-2021, y con información demográfica y socioeconómica. Se exploró la preparación de los países para responder a emergencias de salud a partir del Informe Anual de Autoevaluación de los Estados Miembros de la Organización Mundial de la Salud del 2019 sobre la implementación del Reglamento Sanitario Internacional (RSI). Los análisis estadísticos se realizaron con la prueba de correlación (ro) de Spearman.

          Resultados.

          Se observó una alta correlación positiva del producto interno bruto per cápita y del índice de desarrollo humano con la incidencia, las pruebas y la cobertura de vacunación respecto a la COVID-19, así como de la proporción de personas mayores en la población con la cobertura de vacunación. No se observó ninguna correlación entre los indicadores de COVID-19 y la capacidad previa de implementación del RSI.

          Conclusiones.

          La falta de correlación entre los indicadores relativos a la COVID-19 y la capacidad de implementación del RSI puede deberse a limitaciones de los indicadores utilizados o del mecanismo de seguimiento del RSI como instrumento inductor de la preparación de los países para enfrentar emergencias de salud. Los resultados sugieren la importancia de los factores condicionantes estructurales y la necesidad de realizar estudios longitudinales, comparativos y cualitativos para determinar los factores que influyeron en la respuesta de los países a la COVID-19.

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          Most cited references36

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          Global impact of the first year of COVID-19 vaccination: a mathematical modelling study

          Background The first COVID-19 vaccine outside a clinical trial setting was administered on Dec 8, 2020. To ensure global vaccine equity, vaccine targets were set by the COVID-19 Vaccines Global Access (COVAX) Facility and WHO. However, due to vaccine shortfalls, these targets were not achieved by the end of 2021. We aimed to quantify the global impact of the first year of COVID-19 vaccination programmes. Methods A mathematical model of COVID-19 transmission and vaccination was separately fit to reported COVID-19 mortality and all-cause excess mortality in 185 countries and territories. The impact of COVID-19 vaccination programmes was determined by estimating the additional lives lost if no vaccines had been distributed. We also estimated the additional deaths that would have been averted had the vaccination coverage targets of 20% set by COVAX and 40% set by WHO been achieved by the end of 2021. Findings Based on official reported COVID-19 deaths, we estimated that vaccinations prevented 14·4 million (95% credible interval [Crl] 13·7–15·9) deaths from COVID-19 in 185 countries and territories between Dec 8, 2020, and Dec 8, 2021. This estimate rose to 19·8 million (95% Crl 19·1–20·4) deaths from COVID-19 averted when we used excess deaths as an estimate of the true extent of the pandemic, representing a global reduction of 63% in total deaths (19·8 million of 31·4 million) during the first year of COVID-19 vaccination. In COVAX Advance Market Commitment countries, we estimated that 41% of excess mortality (7·4 million [95% Crl 6·8–7·7] of 17·9 million deaths) was averted. In low-income countries, we estimated that an additional 45% (95% CrI 42–49) of deaths could have been averted had the 20% vaccination coverage target set by COVAX been met by each country, and that an additional 111% (105–118) of deaths could have been averted had the 40% target set by WHO been met by each country by the end of 2021. Interpretation COVID-19 vaccination has substantially altered the course of the pandemic, saving tens of millions of lives globally. However, inadequate access to vaccines in low-income countries has limited the impact in these settings, reinforcing the need for global vaccine equity and coverage. Funding Schmidt Science Fellowship in partnership with the Rhodes Trust; WHO; UK Medical Research Council; Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance; Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation; National Institute for Health Research; and Community Jameel.
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            Health systems resilience in managing the COVID-19 pandemic: lessons from 28 countries

            Health systems resilience is key to learning lessons from country responses to crises such as coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). In this perspective, we review COVID-19 responses in 28 countries using a new health systems resilience framework. Through a combination of literature review, national government submissions and interviews with experts, we conducted a comparative analysis of national responses. We report on domains addressing governance and financing, health workforce, medical products and technologies, public health functions, health service delivery and community engagement to prevent and mitigate the spread of COVID-19. We then synthesize four salient elements that underlie highly effective national responses and offer recommendations toward strengthening health systems resilience globally.
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              • Article: not found

              The effect of age on mortality in patients with Covid-19: a metanalysis with 611,583 subjects

              Objectives Initial data on Covid-19 infection has pointed out a special vulnerability of elderly people. Design we performed a meta-analysis with available national reports at May 7th 2020 from China, Italy, Spain, United Kingdom and New York State. Analyses were performed by a random effects model and sensitivity analyses were performed for the identification of potential sources of heterogeneity. Setting and Participants: covid-19 positive patients reported in literature and national reports. Measures all-cause mortality by age. Results A total of 611,1583 subjects were analyzed and 141,745 (23.2%) had age ≥80. The percentage of octogenarians was different in the 5 registries being the lowest in China (3.2%) and the highest and the highest in UK and New York State. The overall mortality rate was 12.10% and it varied widely between countries being the lowest in China (3.1%) and the highest in UK (20.8%) and New York State (20.99%). Mortality was 50 and, especially, >60. Elderly patients should be priorized in the implementation of preventive measures.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Rev Panam Salud Publica
                Rev Panam Salud Publica
                rpsp
                Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública
                Organización Panamericana de la Salud
                1020-4989
                1680-5348
                12 June 2023
                2023
                : 47
                : e88
                Affiliations
                [1 ] orgnameEscola Nacional de Saúde Pública Sérgio Arouca da Fundação Oswaldo Cruz (ENSP/FIOCRUZ)   originalEscola Nacional de Saúde Pública Sérgio Arouca da Fundação Oswaldo Cruz (ENSP/FIOCRUZ).
                Author notes
                Isabel Domingos Martinez dos Santos, isabeldomingos.sp@ 123456gmail.com
                Article
                RPSP.2023.88
                10.26633/RPSP.2023.88
                10261565
                5eae03e9-1d28-4580-9f62-8ea997a2d7d8

                Este é um artigo de acesso aberto distribuído sob os termos da Licença Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 IGO, que permite o uso, distribuição e reprodução em qualquer meio, desde que o trabalho original seja devidamente citado. Não são permitidas modificações ou uso comercial dos artigos. Em qualquer reprodução do artigo, não deve haver nenhuma sugestão de que a OPAS ou o artigo avaliem qualquer organização ou produtos específicos. Não é permitido o uso do logotipo da OPAS. Este aviso deve ser preservado juntamente com o URL original do artigo. Crédito do logotipo e texto em acesso aberto: PLoS, sob licença Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported

                History
                : 23 October 2022
                : 27 February 2023
                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 3, Equations: 0, References: 35
                Funding
                Funded by: IDMS é bolsista de Doutorado do Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico do Brasil (CNPq), CNPq e Cientista do Nosso Estado da Fundação Carlos Chagas Filho de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (Faperj), Universal do CNPq e Grupos Emergentes em Pesquisa da Faperj;
                IDMS é bolsista de Doutorado do Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico do Brasil (CNPq). CVM é bolsista de Produtividade em Pesquisa do CNPq e Cientista do Nosso Estado da Fundação Carlos Chagas Filho de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (Faperj). O estudo foi favorecido por financiamentos dos editais Universal do CNPq e Grupos Emergentes em Pesquisa da Faperj. Os financiadores não influenciaram o desenho do estudo, a coleta e análise de dados, a decisão de publicar ou a preparação do manuscrito.
                Categories
                Artigo Original

                sistemas de saúde,vigilância em saúde pública,regulamento sanitário internacional,covid-19,américa latina,health systems,public health surveillance,international health regulations,latin america,sistemas de salud,vigilancia en salud pública,reglamento sanitario internacional

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