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      Safety and Efficacy of Prophylactic Amiodarone in Preventing Early Junctional Ectopic Tachycardia (JET) in Children After Cardiac Surgery and Determination of Its Risk Factor

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          Postoperative junctional ectopic tachycardia in children: incidence, risk factors, and treatment.

          Junctional ectopic tachycardia (JET) occurs commonly after pediatric cardiac operation. The cause of JET is thought to be the result of an injury to the conduction system during the procedure and may be perpetuated by hemodynamic disturbances or postoperative electrolyte disturbances, namely hypomagnesemia. The purpose of this study was to determine perioperative risk factors for the development of JET. Telemetry for each patient admitted to the cardiac intensive care unit from December 1997 through November 1998 for postoperative cardiac surgical care was examined daily for postoperative JET. A nested case-cohort analysis of 33 patients who experienced JET from 594 consecutively monitored patients who underwent cardiac operation was performed. Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to determine factors associated with the occurrence of JET. The age range of patients with JET was 1 day to 10.5 years (median, 1.8 months). Univariate analysis revealed that dopamine or milrinone use postoperatively, longer cardiopulmonary bypass times, and younger age were associated with JET. Multivariate modeling elicited that dopamine use postoperatively (odds ratio, 6.2; p = 0.01) and age less than 6 months (odds ratio, 4.0; p = 0.02) were associated with JET. Only 13 (39%) of the patients with JET received therapeutic interventions. Junctional ectopic tachycardia occurred in 33 (5.6%) of 594 patients who underwent cardiac operation during the study period. Postoperative dopamine use and younger age were associated with JET. It may be speculated that dopamine should be discontinued in the presence of postoperative JET.
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            Early postoperative arrhythmias after pediatric cardiac surgery.

            Early postoperative arrhythmias are a known complication of cardiac surgery; however, little data exists specific to pediatrics. The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence and risk factors associated with the development of arrhythmias immediately after surgery in a pediatric population. Data were collected in a prospective observational format from pediatric patients undergoing cardiac surgery between September 2000 and May 2003. This format included age, anatomy, surgical repair, and serum magnesium and calcium levels, as well as cardiopulmonary bypass and aortic crossclamp times. Patients were continuously monitored, and hemodynamically significant arrhythmias were recorded. Arrhythmias occurred in 28 of the 189 patients enrolled (15%) including 16 with junctional ectopic tachycardia, 7 with complete atrioventricular block, 4 with ventricular tachycardia, and 1 with re-entrant supraventricular tachycardia. Significant differences were found between the arrhythmia and nonarrhythmia groups with regard to age (22 vs 45 months), cardiopulmonary bypass time (189 vs 109 minutes), and aortic crossclamp time (105 vs 44 minutes); P < .05. Magnesium and calcium levels were not significantly different between the groups. Two repairs carried an increased risk: complete atrioventricular septal defect repair, 8 of 11 patients (72%), and the arterial switch 5 of 8 patients (62.5%); P < .05. Atrioventricular septal defects had an even higher incidence when controlled for age, bypass time, and crossclamp time (odds ratio = 7.65). Hemodynamically significant postoperative arrhythmias are a frequent complication of pediatric cardiac surgery. Younger age and longer bypass and crossclamp times are risk factors for arrhythmia. In addition, the repair of atrioventricular septal defects carries an independent risk of arrhythmias.
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              Risk factors for cardiac arrhythmias in children with congenital heart disease after surgical intervention in the early postoperative period.

              Early postoperative arrhythmias are a recognized complication of pediatric cardiac surgery. Diagnosis and treatment of early postoperative arrhythmias were prospectively analyzed in 402 consecutive patients aged 1 day to 18 years (mean 29.5 months) who underwent operation between January and December 2005 at our institute. All children were admitted to the intensive care unit, and continuous electrocardiogram monitoring was performed. Risk factors, such as age, weight, Aristotle Basic Score, cardiopulmonary bypass time, aortic crossclamp time, and use of deep hypothermia and circulatory arrest, were compared. Statistical analysis using the Student t test, Mann-Whitney U test, or Fisher exact test was performed. Multivariate stepwise logistic regression was used to assess the risk factors of postoperative arrhythmias. Arrhythmias occurred in 57 of 402 patients (14.2%). The most common types of arrhythmia were junctional ectopic tachycardia (21), supraventricular tachycardia (15), and arteriovenous block (6). Risk factors for arrhythmias, such as lower age (P = .0041*), lower body weight (P = .000001*), higher Aristotle Basic Score (P = .000001*), longer cardiopulmonary bypass time (P = .000001*), aortic crossclamp time (P = .000001*), and use of deep hypothermia and circulatory arrest (P = .0188*), were identified in a univariate analysis. In the multivariate stepwise logistic regression, only higher Aristotle Basic Score was statistically significant (P = .000003*) compared with weight (P = .62) and age (P = .40); in the cardiopulmonary bypass group, only longer aortic crossclamp time was statistically significant (P = .007*). Lower age, lower body weight, higher Aristotle Basic Score, longer cardiopulmonary bypass time, aortic crossclamp time, and use of deep hypothermia and circulatory arrest are the risk factors for postoperative arrhythmias. Junctional ectopic tachycardia and supraventricular tachycardia were the most common postoperative arrhythmias.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Pediatric Cardiology
                Pediatr Cardiol
                Springer Science and Business Media LLC
                0172-0643
                1432-1971
                April 2016
                January 27 2016
                April 2016
                : 37
                : 4
                : 734-739
                Article
                10.1007/s00246-016-1343-5
                5eb61ceb-22a2-4224-9aaa-7f74123d5f29
                © 2016

                http://www.springer.com/tdm


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