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      Polystyrene micro-/nanoplastics induced hematopoietic damages via the crosstalk of gut microbiota, metabolites, and cytokines

      , , , , , ,
      Environment International
      Elsevier BV

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          Lost at sea: where is all the plastic?

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            Gut microbiota, metabolites and host immunity.

            The microbiota - the collection of microorganisms that live within and on all mammals - provides crucial signals for the development and function of the immune system. Increased availability of technologies that profile microbial communities is facilitating the entry of many immunologists into the evolving field of host-microbiota studies. The microbial communities, their metabolites and components are not only necessary for immune homeostasis, they also influence the susceptibility of the host to many immune-mediated diseases and disorders. In this Review, we discuss technological and computational approaches for investigating the microbiome, as well as recent advances in our understanding of host immunity and microbial mutualism with a focus on specific microbial metabolites, bacterial components and the immune system.
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              Plastic Pollution in the World's Oceans: More than 5 Trillion Plastic Pieces Weighing over 250,000 Tons Afloat at Sea

              Plastic pollution is ubiquitous throughout the marine environment, yet estimates of the global abundance and weight of floating plastics have lacked data, particularly from the Southern Hemisphere and remote regions. Here we report an estimate of the total number of plastic particles and their weight floating in the world's oceans from 24 expeditions (2007–2013) across all five sub-tropical gyres, costal Australia, Bay of Bengal and the Mediterranean Sea conducting surface net tows (N = 680) and visual survey transects of large plastic debris (N = 891). Using an oceanographic model of floating debris dispersal calibrated by our data, and correcting for wind-driven vertical mixing, we estimate a minimum of 5.25 trillion particles weighing 268,940 tons. When comparing between four size classes, two microplastic 4.75 mm, a tremendous loss of microplastics is observed from the sea surface compared to expected rates of fragmentation, suggesting there are mechanisms at play that remove <4.75 mm plastic particles from the ocean surface.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Environment International
                Environment International
                Elsevier BV
                01604120
                March 2022
                March 2022
                : 161
                : 107131
                Article
                10.1016/j.envint.2022.107131
                35149446
                5ec8ed73-ecf4-4ff3-ac62-a85bbc103d01
                © 2022

                https://www.elsevier.com/tdm/userlicense/1.0/

                http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/

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