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      TFRC and ACTB as the best reference genes to quantify Urokinase Plasminogen Activator in breast cancer


      , 1 , 1 , 1

      BMC Research Notes

      BioMed Central

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          Biomedical researchers have long looked for ways to diagnose and treat cancer patients at the early stages through biomarkers. Although conventional techniques are routinely applied in the detection of biomarkers, attitudes towards using Real-Time PCR techniques in detection of many biomarkers are increasing. Normalization of quantitative Real-Time PCR is necessary to validate non-biological alteration occurring during the steps of RNA quantification. Selection of variably expressed housekeeping genes (HKs) will affect the validity of the data. The aim of the present study was to identify uniformly expressed housekeeping genes in order to use in the breast cancer gene expression studies. Urokinase Plasminogen Activator was used as a gene of interest.


          The expression of six HKs (TFRC, GUSB, GAPDH, ACTB, HPRT1 and RPLP0) was investigated using geNorm and NormFinder softwares in forty breast tumor, four normal and eight adjacent tissues. RPLP0 and GAPDH revealed maximum M value, while TFRC demonstrated lowest M value.


          In the present study the most and the least stable genes were TFRC and RPLP0 respectively. TFRC and ACTB were verified as the best combination of two genes for breast cancer quantification. The result of this study shows that in each gene expression analysis HKs selection should be done based on experiment conditions.

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          Most cited references 29

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          Human housekeeping genes are compact.

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            A compendium of gene expression in normal human tissues.

            This study creates a compendium of gene expression in normal human tissues suitable as a reference for defining basic organ systems biology. Using oligonucleotide microarrays, we analyze 59 samples representing 19 distinct tissue types. Of approximately 7,000 genes analyzed, 451 genes are expressed in all tissue types and designated as housekeeping genes. These genes display significant variation in expression levels among tissues and are sufficient for discerning tissue-specific expression signatures, indicative of fundamental differences in biochemical processes. In addition, subsets of tissue-selective genes are identified that define key biological processes characterizing each organ. This compendium highlights similarities and differences among organ systems and different individuals and also provides a publicly available resource (Human Gene Expression Index, the HuGE Index, http://www.hugeindex.org) for future studies of pathophysiology.
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              The power of real-time PCR.

               Mark Valasek,  J Repa (2005)
              In recent years, real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has emerged as a robust and widely used methodology for biological investigation because it can detect and quantify very small amounts of specific nucleic acid sequences. As a research tool, a major application of this technology is the rapid and accurate assessment of changes in gene expression as a result of physiology, pathophysiology, or development. This method can be applied to model systems to measure responses to experimental stimuli and to gain insight into potential changes in protein level and function. Thus physiology can be correlated with molecular events to gain a better understanding of biological processes. For clinical molecular diagnostics, real-time PCR can be used to measure viral or bacterial loads or evaluate cancer status. Here, we discuss the basic concepts, chemistries, and instrumentation of real-time PCR and include present applications and future perspectives for this technology in biomedical sciences and in life science education.

                Author and article information

                BMC Res Notes
                BMC Research Notes
                BioMed Central
                25 June 2011
                : 4
                : 215
                [1 ]Iranian Center for Breast Cancer (ICBC); Academic Center for Education, Culture and Research (ACECR) No 45, Nazari St, Aboureihan St, Enghelab Ave, Tehran, Iran
                Copyright ©2011 Majidzadeh-A et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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