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      Natural habitats uncovered? – Genetic structure of known and newly found localities of the endangered bitterling Pseudorhodeus tanago (Cyprinidae)

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          Abstract

          Overuse of natural resources by humans is a major threat to biodiversity. Overuse often involves species of economic or esthetic value, and fish are a typical example for a group that is exploited both for economic reasons (for human consumption) and for esthetic reasons (e.g. by aquarists). Pseudorhodeus tanago (Tanaka, 1909) (formerly known as Tanakia tanago) is a small colorful but legally protected (fishing, keeping and transfer are banned) bitterling fish distributed around Tokyo, Japan. Whereas it is critically endangered and more and more habitat loss has occurred, at least four stocks have been newly found during the last decade. To explore whether emergence of these newly found habitats is a consequence of incomplete survey, we genotyped mitochondrial cytochrome b sequence of P. tanago from 17 localities and an illegal home aquarium. Populations known by the past extensive survey (13 localities) showed geographically structured population genetic characteristics. Population-specific haplotypes were common indicating past divergence and bottleneck events. Four (north, {center + west}, south_1, south_2) or five (north, center, west, south_1, south_2) geographic groups were detectable as for these known localities. On the other hand, newly found stocks were polymorphic and showed identical haplotypes from distant known localities. If we assume historical basis of distribution and genetic characteristics of these newly found stocks, it must be a series of unlikely geological events and haplotype sorting. We discuss potential issues posed by these questionable stocks.

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          Most cited references 15

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          What is a population? An empirical evaluation of some genetic methods for identifying the number of gene pools and their degree of connectivity.

          We review commonly used population definitions under both the ecological paradigm (which emphasizes demographic cohesion) and the evolutionary paradigm (which emphasizes reproductive cohesion) and find that none are truly operational. We suggest several quantitative criteria that might be used to determine when groups of individuals are different enough to be considered 'populations'. Units for these criteria are migration rate (m) for the ecological paradigm and migrants per generation (Nm) for the evolutionary paradigm. These criteria are then evaluated by applying analytical methods to simulated genetic data for a finite island model. Under the standard parameter set that includes L = 20 High mutation (microsatellite-like) loci and samples of S = 50 individuals from each of n = 4 subpopulations, power to detect departures from panmixia was very high ( approximately 100%; P < 0.001) even with high gene flow (Nm = 25). A new method, comparing the number of correct population assignments with the random expectation, performed as well as a multilocus contingency test and warrants further consideration. Use of Low mutation (allozyme-like) markers reduced power more than did halving S or L. Under the standard parameter set, power to detect restricted gene flow below a certain level X (H(0): Nm < X) can also be high, provided that true Nm < or = 0.5X. Developing the appropriate test criterion, however, requires assumptions about several key parameters that are difficult to estimate in most natural populations. Methods that cluster individuals without using a priori sampling information detected the true number of populations only under conditions of moderate or low gene flow (Nm < or = 5), and power dropped sharply with smaller samples of loci and individuals. A simple algorithm based on a multilocus contingency test of allele frequencies in pairs of samples has high power to detect the true number of populations even with Nm = 25 but requires more rigorous statistical evaluation. The ecological paradigm remains challenging for evaluations using genetic markers, because the transition from demographic dependence to independence occurs in a region of high migration where genetic methods have relatively little power. Some recent theoretical developments and continued advances in computational power provide hope that this situation may change in the future.
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            A simulated annealing approach to define the genetic structure of populations

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              ‘Touchdown’ PCR to circumvent spurious priming during gene amplification

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Nature Conservation
                NC
                Pensoft Publishers
                1314-3301
                1314-6947
                March 09 2017
                March 09 2017
                : 17
                : 19-33
                Article
                10.3897/natureconservation.17.10939
                © 2017

                http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

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