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      Mutations in a gene encoding an ABC transporter cause pseudoxanthoma elasticum.

      Nature genetics

      ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters, chemistry, genetics, Amino Acid Sequence, Base Sequence, Chromosomes, Human, Pair 16, Cohort Studies, Consanguinity, DNA Mutational Analysis, Exons, Female, Fibroblasts, metabolism, Genetic Linkage, Genotype, Humans, Male, Microsatellite Repeats, Multidrug Resistance-Associated Proteins, Mutation, Pedigree, Phenotype, Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide, Protein Conformation, Pseudoxanthoma Elasticum, pathology, RNA, Messenger

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          Abstract

          Pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE) is a heritable disorder characterized by calcification of elastic fibres in skin, arteries and retina that results in dermal lesions with associated laxity and loss of elasticity, arterial insufficiency and retinal haemorrhages leading to macular degeneration. PXE is usually found as a sporadic disorder, but examples of both autosomal recessive and autosomal dominant forms of PXE have been observed. Partial manifestations of the PXE phenotype have also been described in presumed carriers in PXE families. Linkage of both dominant and recessive forms of PXE to a 5-cM domain on chromosome 16p13.1 has been reported (refs 8,9). We have refined this locus to an 820-kb region containing 6 candidate genes. Here we report the exclusion of five of these genes and the identification of the first mutations responsible for the development of PXE in a gene encoding a protein associated with multidrug resistance (ABCC6).

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          Most cited references 19

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          RNA splice junctions of different classes of eukaryotes: sequence statistics and functional implications in gene expression.

          A systematic analysis of the RNA splice junction sequences of eukaryotic protein coding genes was carried out using the GENBANK databank. Nucleotide frequencies obtained for the highly conserved regions around the splice sites for different categories of organisms closely agree with each other. A striking similarity among the rare splice junctions which do not contain AG at the 3' splice site or GT at the 5' splice site indicates the existence of special mechanisms to recognize them, and that these unique signals may be involved in crucial gene-regulation events and in differentiation. A method was developed to predict potential exons in a bare sequence, using a scoring and ranking scheme based on nucleotide weight tables. This method was used to find a majority of the exons in selected known genes, and also predicted potential new exons which may be used in alternative splicing situations.
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            Principles governing amino acid composition of integral membrane proteins: application to topology prediction.

            A new method is suggested here for topology prediction of helical transmembrane proteins. The method is based on the hypothesis that the localizations of the transmembrane segments and the topology are determined by the difference in the amino acid distributions in various structural parts of these proteins rather than by specific amino acid compositions of these parts. A hidden Markov model with special architecture was developed to search transmembrane topology corresponding to the maximum likelihood among all the possible topologies of a given protein. The prediction accuracy was tested on 158 proteins and was found to be higher than that found using prediction methods already available. The method successfully predicted all the transmembrane segments in 143 proteins out of the 158, and for 135 of these proteins both the membrane spanning regions and the topologies were predicted correctly. The observed level of accuracy is a strong argument in favor of our hypothesis. Copyright 1998 Academic Press.
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              Membrane topology and glycosylation of the human multidrug resistance-associated protein.

              The membrane topology of the human multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP) was examined by flow cytometry phenotyping, immunoblotting, and limited proteolysis in drug-resistant human and baculovirus-infected insect cells, expressing either the glycosylated or the underglycosylated forms of this protein. Inhibition of N-linked glycosylation in human cells by tunicamycin did not inhibit the transport function or the antibody recognition of MRP, although its apparent molecular mass was reduced from 180 kDa to 150 kDa. Extracellular addition of trypsin or chymotrypsin had no effect either on the function or on the molecular mass of MRP, while in isolated membranes limited proteolysis produced three large membrane-bound fragments. These experiments and the alignment of the MRP sequence with the human cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) suggest that human MRP, similarly to CFTR, contains a tandem repeat of six transmembrane helices, each followed by a nucleotide binding domain, and that the C-terminal membrane-bound region is glycosylated. However, the N-terminal region of MRP contains an additional membrane-bound, glycosylated area with four or five transmembrane helices, which seems to be a characteristic feature of MRP-like ATP-binding cassette transporters.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                10835642
                10.1038/76102

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