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      Vesicular and nonvesicular transport of ceramide from ER to the Golgi apparatus in yeast

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          Abstract

          Transport and sorting of lipids must occur with specific mechanisms because the membranes of intracellular organelles differ in lipid composition even though most lipid biosynthesis begins in the ER. In yeast, ceramide is synthesized in the ER and transferred to the Golgi apparatus where inositolphosphorylceramide (IPC) is formed. These two facts imply that ceramide can be transported to the Golgi independent of vesicular traffic because IPC synthesis still continues when vesicular transport is blocked in sec mutants. Nonvesicular IPC synthesis in intact cells is not affected by ATP depletion. Using an in vitro assay that reconstitutes the nonvesicular pathway for transport of ceramide, we found that transport is temperature and cytosol dependent but energy independent. Preincubation of ER and Golgi fractions together at 4°C, where ceramide transport does not occur, rendered the transport reaction membrane concentration independent, providing biochemical evidence that ER-Golgi membrane contacts stimulate ceramide transport. A cytosolic protease-sensitive factor is required after establishment of ER-Golgi contacts.

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          Most cited references50

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          COPII: a membrane coat formed by Sec proteins that drive vesicle budding from the endoplasmic reticulum.

          In vitro synthesis of endoplasmic reticulum-derived transport vesicles has been reconstituted with washed membranes and three soluble proteins (Sar1p, Sec13p complex, and Sec23p complex). Vesicle formation requires GTP but can be driven by nonhydrolyzable analogs such as GMP-PNP. However, GMP-PNP vesicles fail to target and fuse with the Golgi complex whereas GTP vesicles are functional. All the cytosolic proteins required for vesicle formation are retained on GMP-PNP vesicles, while Sar1p dissociates from GTP vesicles. Thin section electron microscopy of purified preparations reveals a uniform population of 60-65 nm vesicles with a 10 nm thick electron dense coat. The subunits of this novel coat complex are molecularly distinct from the constituents of the nonclathrin coatomer involved in intra-Golgi transport. Because the overall cycle of budding driven by these two types of coats appears mechanistically similar, we propose that the coat structures be called COPI and COPII.
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            Golgi Structure in Three Dimensions: Functional Insights from the Normal Rat Kidney Cell

            Three-dimensional reconstructions of portions of the Golgi complex from cryofixed, freeze-substituted normal rat kidney cells have been made by dual-axis, high-voltage EM tomography at ∼7-nm resolution. The reconstruction shown here (∼1 × 1 × 4 μm3) contains two stacks of seven cisternae separated by a noncompact region across which bridges connect some cisternae at equivalent levels, but none at nonequivalent levels. The rest of the noncompact region is filled with both vesicles and polymorphic membranous elements. All cisternae are fenestrated and display coated buds. They all have about the same surface area, but they differ in volume by as much as 50%. The trans-most cisterna produces exclusively clathrin-coated buds, whereas the others display only nonclathrin coated buds. This finding challenges traditional views of where sorting occurs within the Golgi complex. Tubules with budding profiles extend from the margins of both cis and trans cisternae. They pass beyond neighboring cisternae, suggesting that these tubules contribute to traffic to and/or from the Golgi. Vesicle-filled “wells” open to both the cis and lateral sides of the stacks. The stacks of cisternae are positioned between two types of ER, cis and trans. The cis ER lies adjacent to the ER-Golgi intermediate compartment, which consists of discrete polymorphic membranous elements layered in front of the cis-most Golgi cisterna. The extensive trans ER forms close contacts with the two trans-most cisternae; this apposition may permit direct transfer of lipids between ER and Golgi membranes. Within 0.2 μm of the cisternae studied, there are 394 vesicles (8 clathrin coated, 190 nonclathrin coated, and 196 noncoated), indicating considerable vesicular traffic in this Golgi region. Our data place structural constraints on models of trafficking to, through, and from the Golgi complex.
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              Electrospray Ionization Tandem Mass Spectrometry (Esi-Ms/Ms) Analysis of the Lipid Molecular Species Composition of Yeast Subcellular Membranes Reveals Acyl Chain-Based Sorting/Remodeling of Distinct Molecular Species En Route to the Plasma Membrane

              Nano-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (nano-ESI-MS/MS) was employed to determine qualitative differences in the lipid molecular species composition of a comprehensive set of organellar membranes, isolated from a single culture of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells. Remarkable differences in the acyl chain composition of biosynthetically related phospholipid classes were observed. Acyl chain saturation was lowest in phosphatidylcholine (15.4%) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE; 16.2%), followed by phosphatidylserine (PS; 29.4%), and highest in phosphatidylinositol (53.1%). The lipid molecular species profiles of the various membranes were generally similar, with a deviation from a calculated average profile of ∼± 20%. Nevertheless, clear distinctions between the molecular species profiles of different membranes were observed, suggesting that lipid sorting mechanisms are operating at the level of individual molecular species to maintain the specific lipid composition of a given membrane. Most notably, the plasma membrane is enriched in saturated species of PS and PE. The nature of the sorting mechanism that determines the lipid composition of the plasma membrane was investigated further. The accumulation of monounsaturated species of PS at the expense of diunsaturated species in the plasma membrane of wild-type cells was reversed in elo3Δ mutant cells, which synthesize C24 fatty acid-substituted sphingolipids instead of the normal C26 fatty acid-substituted species. This observation suggests that acyl chain-based sorting and/or remodeling mechanisms are operating to maintain the specific lipid molecular species composition of the yeast plasma membrane.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                J Cell Biol
                The Journal of Cell Biology
                The Rockefeller University Press
                0021-9525
                1540-8140
                10 December 2001
                : 155
                : 6
                : 949-960
                Affiliations
                Biozentrum of the University of Basel, CH-4056 Basel, Switzerland
                Author notes

                Address correspondence to Howard Riezman, Biozentrum, University of Basel, Klingelbergstr. 70, Basel CH-4056, Switzerland. Tel.: 41-61-267-2160. Fax: 41-61-267-2149. E-mail: howard.riezman@ 123456unibas.ch

                Article
                0105033
                10.1083/jcb.200105033
                2150913
                11733544
                5ef567f6-3380-4045-9076-54b3e8336b8a
                Copyright © 2001, The Rockefeller University Press
                History
                : 7 May 2001
                : 24 October 2001
                : 24 October 2001
                Categories
                Article

                Cell biology
                ceramide transport; sphingolipids; membrane contacts; secretion; saccharomyces cerevisiae

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