2
views
0
recommends
+1 Recommend
1 collections
    0
    shares
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found

      The Pathogenesis of Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease

      Read this article at

      ScienceOpenPublisherPubMed
      Bookmark
          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Abstract

          In individuals with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD), renal function deteriorates as the kidneys become replaced by multitudes of fluid-filled cysts. Although the PKD genes were identified a decade ago, the pathway(s) leading from mutation to disease remain the subject of intense investigation. As a result of this work, it has become apparent that the polycystins are multifunctional proteins that, in the broadest sense, appear to be involved in the transduction of a number of environmental cues into appropriate cellular responses. It is likely that the central pathogenetic pathway for cystogenesis stems from de-differentiation of tubular epithelial cells. Available evidence indicates that loss of polycystin activity leads to subtle derangements of cell calcium regulation through several possible pathways. Abnormal cell calcium homeostasis might then lead to altered differentiation in affected cells. The study of the polycystins has revealed some entirely novel insights into fundamental cell biology but these have not yet been satisfactorily integrated into a verified pathogenetic pathway for the development of ADPKD.

          Related collections

          Most cited references 26

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          PKD2, a gene for polycystic kidney disease that encodes an integral membrane protein.

          A second gene for autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease was identified by positional cloning. Nonsense mutations in this gene (PKD2) segregated with the disease in three PKD2 families. The predicted 968-amino acid sequence of the PKD2 gene product has six transmembrane spans with intracellular amino- and carboxyl-termini. The PKD2 protein has amino acid similarity with PKD1, the Caenorhabditis elegans homolog of PKD1, and the family of voltage-activated calcium (and sodium) channels, and it contains a potential calcium-binding domain.
            Bookmark
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            Cilia and Hedgehog responsiveness in the mouse.

            The intraflagellar transport (IFT) proteins Ift172/Wimple and Polaris/Ift88 and the anterograde IFT motor kinesin-II are required for the production and maintenance of cilia. These proteins are also required for the activation of targets of the mouse Hedgehog (Hh) pathway by Gli transcription factors. The phenotypes of the IFT mutants, however, are not identical to mutants that lack Smoothened (Smo), an essential activator of the Hh pathway. We show here that mouse embryos that lack both Ift172 and Smo are identical to Ift172 single mutants, which indicates that Ift172 acts downstream of Smo. Ift172 mutants have a weaker neural patterning phenotype than Smo mutants, because Ift172, but not Smo, is required for proteolytic processing of Gli3 to its repressor form. Dnchc2 and Kif3a, essential subunits of the retrograde and anterograde IFT motors, are also required for both formation of Gli activator and proteolytic processing of Gli3. As a result, IFT mutants display a loss of Hh signaling phenotype in the neural tube, where Gli activators play the major role in pattern formation, and a gain of Hh signaling phenotype in the limb, where Gli3 repressor plays the major role. Because both anterograde and retrograde IFT are essential for positive and negative responses to Hh, and because cilia are present on Hh responsive cells, it is likely that cilia act as organelles that are required for all activity of the mouse Hh pathway.
              Bookmark
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              Co-assembly of polycystin-1 and -2 produces unique cation-permeable currents.

               K Hanaoka,  F Qian,  A Boletta (2015)
              The human kidney is composed of roughly 1.2-million renal tubules that must maintain their tubular structure to function properly. In autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) cysts develop from renal tubules and enlarge independently, in a process that ultimately causes renal failure in 50% of affected individuals. Mutations in either PKD1 or PKD2 are associated with ADPKD but the function of these genes is unknown. PKD1 is thought to encode a membrane protein, polycystin-1, involved in cell-cell or cell-matrix interactions, whereas the PKD2 gene product, polycystin-2, is thought to be a channel protein. Here we show that polycystin-1 and -2 interact to produce new calcium-permeable non-selective cation currents. Neither polycystin-1 nor -2 alone is capable of producing currents. Moreover, disease-associated mutant forms of either polycystin protein that are incapable of heterodimerization do not result in new channel activity. We also show that polycystin-2 is localized in the cell in the absence of polycystin-1, but is translocated to the plasma membrane in its presence. Thus, polycystin-1 and -2 co-assemble at the plasma membrane to produce a new channel and to regulate renal tubular morphology and function.
                Bookmark

                Author and article information

                Journal
                NEE
                Nephron Exp Nephrol
                10.1159/issn.1660-2129
                Cardiorenal Medicine
                S. Karger AG
                1660-2129
                2006
                July 2006
                26 May 2006
                : 103
                : 4
                : e149-e155
                Affiliations
                Division of Renal Medicine, Johns Hopkins Bayview Medical Center, Baltimore, Md., USA
                Article
                93216 Nephron Exp Nephrol 2006;103:e149–e155
                10.1159/000093216
                16691033
                © 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 2, References: 37, Pages: 1
                Product
                Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/93216
                Categories
                Minireview

                Comments

                Comment on this article