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      Anatomical characteristics of fossil wood collected from the Manchar Formation (Miocene), Thano Bula Khan, Sindh, Pakistan

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          Abstract

          The characterization of petrified wood provides valuable information about paleoclimatology and geological history and helps to reconstruct the past forest flora of different parts of the earth. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the anatomical characteristics of fossil wood of the Miocene age collected from the Manchar Formation exposed at Thano Bula Khan, Sindh, Pakistan. In order to carry out a detailed anatomical investigation, three-dimensional sections were prepared using a petrotome. The microscopic analysis allowed us to study vessel size and arrangement, wood parenchyma, fibers, and xylem rays. Based on the comparison between recent and fossil wood, we concluded that the investigated characters are comparable with those of the genus Atalantia Corrêa of the Rutaceae family. Therefore, it was named as Atalantioxylon thanobolensis sp. nov. with reference to the location of Thano Bula Khan from which the fossil wood was collected.

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          Most cited references 17

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          A Comparison of Wood Density between Classical Cremonese and Modern Violins

          Classical violins created by Cremonese masters, such as Antonio Stradivari and Giuseppe Guarneri Del Gesu, have become the benchmark to which the sound of all violins are compared in terms of their abilities of expressiveness and projection. By general consensus, no luthier since that time has been able to replicate the sound quality of these classical instruments. The vibration and sound radiation characteristics of a violin are determined by an instrument's geometry and the material properties of the wood. New test methods allow the non-destructive examination of one of the key material properties, the wood density, at the growth ring level of detail. The densities of five classical and eight modern violins were compared, using computed tomography and specially developed image-processing software. No significant differences were found between the median densities of the modern and the antique violins, however the density difference between wood grains of early and late growth was significantly smaller in the classical Cremonese violins compared with modern violins, in both the top (Spruce) and back (Maple) plates (p = 0.028 and 0.008, respectively). The mean density differential (SE) of the top plates of the modern and classical violins was 274 (26.6) and 183 (11.7) gram/liter. For the back plates, the values were 128 (2.6) and 115 (2.0) gram/liter. These differences in density differentials may reflect similar changes in stiffness distributions, which could directly impact vibrational efficacy or indirectly modify sound radiation via altered damping characteristics. Either of these mechanisms may help explain the acoustical differences between the classical and modern violins.
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            Floral data from the mid-Cenozoic of central Pakistan

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              SEPARATION OF METASEQUOIA AND GLYPTOSTROBUS (CUPRESSACEAE) BASED ON WOOD ANATOMY

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                (View ORCID Profile)
                Journal
                Italian Botanist
                IB
                Pensoft Publishers
                2531-4033
                January 25 2021
                January 25 2021
                : 11
                : 1-8
                Article
                10.3897/italianbotanist.11.60344
                © 2021

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