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      The efficacy of a flipping education program on improving self-management in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a randomized controlled trial

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          Purpose: Self-management is widely used among patients with a chronic disease to control their condition. However, the self-management programs are less distinctive for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) than those with other chronic diseases. This study examines the efficacy of a flipping education program on improving self-management in patients with COPD.

          Patients and methods: A single-blinded, randomized controlled trial was conducted at a medical center in northern Taiwan from January 2015 to May 2016. Sixty participants were randomized to an experimental group and a control group. The self-management program with flipped teaching, customized action plans, and scheduled telephone interviews was implemented in the experimental group for three months. Conventional patient education was implemented in the control group. Disease knowledge, self-efficacy, the patient’s activation level, and the impact of COPD were assessed at baseline, 1 month, and 3 months after the intervention. SPSS 22.0 was used for data analysis.

          Results: The results showed that the patients who received the flipping education program of self-management had statistically significant improvements in their disease knowledge ( p<0.05), self-efficacy ( p<0.01), and activation levels ( p<0.01) from baseline to the 1 month and 3 months follow-up compared to the control group.

          Conclusion: The findings supported that flipped teaching could be applied to patient education in adults and that a nurse case manager can feasibly use this flipping education program of self-management to motivate and support patients with COPD to acquire self-management skills, carry out their action plans, and help them achieve beneficial behaviors in their daily lives.

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          Most cited references 26

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          Loss to follow-up in cohort studies: how much is too much?

          Loss to follow-up is problematic in most cohort studies and often leads to bias. Although guidelines suggest acceptable follow-up rates, the authors are unaware of studies that test the validity of these recommendations. The objective of this study was to determine whether the recommended follow-up thresholds of 60-80% are associated with biased effects in cohort studies. A simulation study was conducted using 1000 computer replications of a cohort of 500 observations. The logistic regression model included a binary exposure and three confounders. Varied correlation structures of the data represented various levels of confounding. Differing levels of loss to follow-up were generated through three mechanisms: missing completely at random (MCAR), missing at random (MAR) and missing not at random (MNAR). The authors found no important bias with levels of loss that varied from 5 to 60% when loss to follow-up was related to MCAR or MAR mechanisms. However, when observations were lost to follow-up based on a MNAR mechanism, the authors found seriously biased estimates of the odds ratios with low levels of loss to follow-up. Loss to follow-up in cohort studies rarely occurs randomly. Therefore, when planning a cohort study, one should assume that loss to follow-up is MNAR and attempt to achieve the maximum follow-up rate possible.
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            A comprehensive care management program to prevent chronic obstructive pulmonary disease hospitalizations: a randomized, controlled trial.

            Improving a patient's ability to self-monitor and manage changes in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) symptoms may improve outcomes. To determine the efficacy of a comprehensive care management program (CCMP) in reducing the risk for COPD hospitalization. A randomized, controlled trial comparing CCMP with guideline-based usual care. ( registration number: NCT00395083) SETTING: 20 Veterans Affairs hospital-based outpatient clinics. Patients hospitalized for COPD in the past year. The CCMP included COPD education during 4 individual sessions and 1 group session, an action plan for identification and treatment of exacerbations, and scheduled proactive telephone calls for case management. Patients in both the intervention and usual care groups received a COPD informational booklet; their primary care providers received a copy of COPD guidelines and were advised to manage their patients according to these guidelines. Patients were randomly assigned, stratifying by site based on random, permuted blocks of variable size. The primary outcome was time to first COPD hospitalization. Staff blinded to study group performed telephone-based assessment of COPD exacerbations and hospitalizations, and all hospitalizations were blindly adjudicated. Secondary outcomes included non-COPD health care use, all-cause mortality, health-related quality of life, patient satisfaction, disease knowledge, and self-efficacy. Of the eligible patients, 209 were randomly assigned to the intervention group and 217 to the usual care group. Citing serious safety concerns, the data monitoring committee terminated the intervention before the trial's planned completion after 426 (44%) of the planned total of 960 patients were enrolled. Mean follow-up was 250 days. When the study was stopped, the 1-year cumulative incidence of COPD-related hospitalization was 27% in the intervention group and 24% in the usual care group (hazard ratio, 1.13 [95% CI, 0.70 to 1.80]; P= 0.62). There were 28 deaths from all causes in the intervention group versus 10 in the usual care group (hazard ratio, 3.00 [CI, 1.46 to 6.17]; P= 0.003). Cause could be assigned in 27 (71%) deaths. Deaths due to COPD accounted for the largest difference: 10 in the intervention group versus 3 in the usual care group (hazard ratio, 3.60 [CI, 0.99 to 13.08]; P= 0.053). Available data could not fully explain the excess mortality in the intervention group. Ability to assess the quality of the educational sessions provided by the case managers was limited. A CCMP in patients with severe COPD had not decreased COPD-related hospitalizations when the trial was stopped prematurely. The CCMP was associated with unanticipated excess mortality, results that differ markedly from similar previous trials. A data monitoring committee should be considered in the design of clinical trials involving behavioral interventions.
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              Measuring a change in self-efficacy following pulmonary rehabilitation: an evaluation of the PRAISE tool.

              Self-efficacy explores the emotional functioning and coping skills of an individual and is thought to be a strong predictor of health behaviors, which is particularly important for pulmonary rehabilitation (PR). However, to our knowledge, there is no measure of self-efficacy developed to explore behavior change in the context of PR. We investigated the reproducibility and sensitivity of Pulmonary Rehabilitation Adapted Index of Self-Efficacy (PRAISE): a tool adapted from the General Self-Efficacy Scale (GSES) to measure the dimension of self-efficacy at the time of a course of PR. Twenty-nine clinically stable patients with COPD completed PRAISE on their initial assessment to PR. The tool was then completed 7 days later. An additional 225 patients completed PRAISE prior to, and on completion of a 7-week course of PR. In addition, exercise capacity was measured by the incremental shuttle walk test (ISWT), with the Medical Research Council (MRC) dyspnea scale, Chronic Respiratory Questionnaire-Self Reported (CRQ-SR), and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) also being collected. This process was repeated postrehabilitation. Data were then analyzed to investigate the possibility that PRAISE could be an indicator of PR response. In the reproducibility study, the mean change in score was 0.72 (95% CI, -2.27-0.82), examined with intraclass correlation coefficients, r = 0.99; indicating PRAISE test-retest reproducibility. The mean change of score in the sensitivity study pre- to post-PR was 3.59 (95% CI, 2.24-4.73; P = .015). Change in the ISWT was 83.44 m (95% CI, 54.0-112.8; P < .0001). There were several statistically significant differences between variables, particularly with the mastery and emotion elements of the CRQ-SR at baseline, but this was lost post-PR. This observation was also found with HADS. No significant differences were found between MRC dypsnea scale grades with the change in PRAISE score. PRAISE could not predict a successful outcome of PR. The PRAISE tool is a reliable and sensitive measure of self-efficacy for patients with COPD attending PR.

                Author and article information

                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
                06 June 2019
                : 14
                : 1239-1250
                [1 ] Department of Nursing and Clinical Competency Center, Chang Gung University of Science and Technology , Taoyuan, Republic of China
                [2 ] Department of Rehabilitation, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital , Taoyuan, Republic of China
                [3 ] School of Nursing, National Taiwan University , Taipei, Republic of China
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Yi-Ya ChangDepartment of Nursing and Clinical Competency Center, Chang Gung University of Science and Technology , No. 261, Wenhua 1st Rd., Guishan Dist, Taoyuan City33303, Republic of ChinaTel +886 3 211 8999 Ext 3222Fax +886 3 211 8866 Email yychang@
                © 2019 Chang and Dai.

                This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms (

                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 5, References: 39, Pages: 12
                Original Research

                Respiratory medicine

                nurse case manager, self-efficacy, disease knowledge, copd, patient education


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