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      Breastfeeding and feeding practices in the first year of life and its association with overweight and obesity of children in Mexico Translated title: Prácticas de lactancia y alimentación en el primer año de vida y su asociación con sobrepeso y obesidad de niños en México


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          Abstract Objectives: to evaluate feeding practices in the first year of life and their association with the development of overweight and obesity in children in Mexico. Methods: the association between overweight and obesity with different feeding practices were evaluated. The data was processed using the statistical package Stata version 14 using logistic regression models. Results: 396 children were evaluated; the prevalence of overweight and obesity was 6% and 7.7% presented a possible risk of overweight. 6.9% had exclusive breastfeeding in the first 6 months of life and 71.7% were fed infant formula. The variables significantly associated with the development of overweight and obesity in the first year of life were the age of the child (p =0.043, RR=0.57), the introduction of fluids in the first three days of life (p=0.02, RR=2.90), consumption of foods with a high sugar content (p =0.01, RR=0.25), consumption of milk other than breast (p =0.02, RR3.25) and egg consumption (p =0.05; RR=0.28). Conclusions: our results show that it is essential to attend complementary feeding practices and reinforce exclusive breastfeeding in the first year of life, as measures to prevent overweight and obesity to improve health in childhood.

          Translated abstract

          Resumen Objetivos: evaluar las prácticas de lactancia y alimentación en el primer año de vida y su asociación con desarrollo del sobrepeso y obesidad de niños en México. Métodos: estudio transversal, analítico, y explicativo, se evaluó la asociación entre sobrepeso y obesidad con las distintas prácticas de alimentación en menores de un año de edad. Resultados: se evaluaron 396 menores, la prevalencia de sobrepeso y obesidad fue de 6% y 7.7% presentaba posible riesgo de sobrepeso. El 6.9% tuvo lactancia materna exclusiva en los primeros 6 meses de vida; 71.7% fueron alimentados con fórmula infantil. Las variables asociadas significativamente con el desarrollo de sobrepeso y obesidad en el primer año de vida fueron: la edad del menor (p =0.043; RR=0.57), introducción de líquidos en los tres primeros días de vida (p=0.02; RR=2.90), consumo de alimentos con alto contenido de azúcar (p = 0.01; RR=0.25), consumo de leches distintas al pecho (p = 0.02; RR=3.25) y consumo de huevo (p =0.05; RR=0.28). Conclusiones: nuestros resultados muestran que es fundamental atender las prácticas de alimentación complementaria y reforzar la lactancia materna exclusiva en el primer año de vida, como medidas de prevención del sobrepeso y obesidad para mejorar la salud en la infancia.

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          Most cited references29

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          The origins of the developmental origins theory.

          D Barker (2007)
          Current orthodoxy states that coronary heart disease results from the unhealthy lifestyles of westernized adults together with a contribution from genetic inheritance. This does not provide a secure basis for prevention of the disease. Geographical studies gave the first clue that the disease originates during intra-uterine development. Variations in mortality from the disease across England and Wales were shown to correlate closely with past differences in death rates among newborn babies. In the past most deaths among newborns were attributed to low birthweight. This led to the hypothesis that undernutrition in utero permanently changes the body's structure, function and metabolism in ways that lead to coronary heart disease in later life. The association between low birthweight and coronary heart disease has been confirmed in longitudinal studies of men and women around the world. The developmental model of the origins of the disease offers a new way forward.
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            The types of food introduced during complementary feeding and risk of childhood obesity: a systematic review.

            The determinants of childhood overweight and obesity are complex, but infant feeding and the early diet are important contributing factors. The complementary feeding period in particular, is a time during which children are nutritionally vulnerable, and a time where life-long eating habits may be established. We conducted a systematic review of the literature that investigated the relationship between the types of food consumed by infants during the complementary feeding period and overweight or obesity during childhood. Electronic databases were searched from inception until June 2012 using specified keywords. Following the application of strict inclusion/exclusion criteria, 10 studies were identified and reviewed by two independent reviewers. Data were extracted and aspects of quality were assessed using an adapted Newcastle-Ottawa scale. Studies were categorised into three groups: macronutrient intake, food type/group and adherence to dietary guidelines. Some association was found between high protein intakes at 2-12 months of age and higher body mass index (BMI) or body fatness in childhood, but was not the case in all studies. Higher energy intake during complementary feeding was associated with higher BMI in childhood. Adherence to dietary guidelines during weaning was associated with a higher lean mass, but consuming specific foods or food groups made no difference to children's BMI. We concluded that high intakes of energy and protein, particularly dairy protein, in infancy could be associated with an increase in BMI and body fatness, but further research is needed to establish the nature of the relationship. Adherence to dietary guidelines during weaning is recommended.
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              Introduction of complementary feeding before 4months of age increases the risk of childhood overweight or obesity: a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies.

              The association between the age at introduction of complementary feeding and the risk of overweight or obesity during childhood has been hotly debated, but the result remains uncertain. This meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies attempted to evaluate this association, as well as provide evidence for infant feeding recommendations. The PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane databases were systematically searched for relevant original articles published prior to March 1, 2015 that met predefined inclusion criteria. The pooled relative risks (RRs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using fix-effect or random-effect models, which were chosen based on heterogeneity among studies. Ten articles consisting of 13 studies, where 8 measured being overweight as an outcome and 5 measured being obese, were included in this meta-analysis. There were a total of 63,605 participants and 11,900 incident cases in the overweight studies, and 56,136 individuals and 3246 incident cases in the obese studies. The pooled results revealed that introducing complementary foods before 4months of age compared to at 4 to 6months was associated with an increased risk of being overweight (RR, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.06-1.31) or obese (RR, 1.33; 95% CI, 1.07-1.64) during childhood. No significant relationship was observed between delaying introduction of complementary foods after 6months of age, and being overweight (RR, 1.01; 95% CI, 0.90-1.13) or obese (RR, 1.02; 95% CI, 0.91-1.14) during childhood. The results of this study suggest that the introduction of complementary foods to infants before 4months of age should be avoided to protect against childhood obesity.

                Author and article information

                Revista Brasileira de Saúde Materno Infantil
                Rev. Bras. Saude Mater. Infant.
                Instituto de Medicina Integral Prof. Fernando Figueira (Recife, PR, Brazil )
                December 2021
                : 21
                : 4
                : 1109-1118
                [1] Morelos Morelos orgnameInstituto Nacional de Salud Pública orgdiv1Centro de Investigación en Sistemas de Salud Mexico ciss09@ 123456insp.mx
                [2] Querétaro Querétaro orgnameUniversidad Autónoma de Querétaro Mexico
                S1519-38292021000601109 S1519-3829(21)02100401109

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

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                Figures: 0, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 29, Pages: 10
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                Original Articles

                Lactancia materna,Sobrepeso,Obesidad,Nutrición del infante,Breastfeeding,Overweight,Obesity,Infant nutrition


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