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      Molecular mechanisms and effects of urocortin II on rat adventitial fibroblast calcification induced by calcified medium


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          The present study aimed to assess the role of urocortin II (UII) in the process of vascular calcification in vitro by using a calcification model, to detect the changes in the mRNA and protein levels of associated markers in rat adventitial fibroblasts (AFs) during their phenotypic transformation to osteoblast cellsto clarify the main signal transduction pathway of UII responsible for regulating vascular calcification and AF phenotypic transformation of osteoblast cells, and to prove that UII was an endogenous factor promoting vascular calcification, so as to provide an effective experimental basis for the clinical regulation of related diseases caused by vascular calcification. Finally, we successfully constructed the calcified cell model, found that UII was an endogenous substance regulating vascular calcification, regulated the vascular calcification by promoting apoptosis and inhibiting autophagy through up- and downregulated BAX and BCL-2/BECLIN 1 (BECN1) level, and the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway was involved.

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          Most cited references27

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          Role of smooth muscle cells in vascular calcification: implications in atherosclerosis and arterial stiffness

          Abstract Vascular calcification is associated with a significant increase in all-cause mortality and atherosclerotic plaque rupture. Calcification has been determined to be an active process driven in part by vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) transdifferentiation within the vascular wall. Historically, VSMC phenotype switching has been viewed as binary, with the cells able to adopt a physiological contractile phenotype or an alternate ‘synthetic’ phenotype in response to injury. More recent work, including lineage tracing has however revealed that VSMCs are able to adopt a number of phenotypes, including calcific (osteogenic, chondrocytic, and osteoclastic), adipogenic, and macrophagic phenotypes. Whilst the mechanisms that drive VSMC differentiation are still being elucidated it is becoming clear that medial calcification may differ in several ways from the intimal calcification seen in atherosclerotic lesions, including risk factors and specific drivers for VSMC phenotype changes and calcification. This article aims to compare and contrast the role of VSMCs in driving calcification in both atherosclerosis and in the vessel media focusing on the major drivers of calcification, including aging, uraemia, mechanical stress, oxidative stress, and inflammation. The review also discusses novel findings that have also brought attention to specific pro- and anti-calcifying proteins, extracellular vesicles, mitochondrial dysfunction, and a uraemic milieu as major determinants of vascular calcification.
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            Human vascular smooth muscle cells undergo vesicle-mediated calcification in response to changes in extracellular calcium and phosphate concentrations: a potential mechanism for accelerated vascular calcification in ESRD.

            Patients with ESRD have a high circulating calcium (Ca) x phosphate (P) product and develop extensive vascular calcification that may contribute to their high cardiovascular morbidity. However, the cellular mechanisms underlying vascular calcification in this context are poorly understood. In an in vitro model, elevated Ca or P induced human vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) calcification independently and synergistically, a process that was potently inhibited by serum. Calcification was initiated by release from living VSMC of membrane-bound matrix vesicles (MV) and also by apoptotic bodies from dying cells. Vesicles released by VSMC after prolonged exposure to Ca and P contained preformed basic calcium phosphate and calcified extensively. However, vesicles released in the presence of serum did not contain basic calcium phosphate, co-purified with the mineralization inhibitor fetuin-A and calcified minimally. Importantly, MV released under normal physiologic conditions did not calcify, and VSMC were also able to inhibit the spontaneous precipitation of Ca and P in solution. The potent mineralization inhibitor matrix Gla protein was found to be present in MV, and pretreatment of VSMC with warfarin markedly enhanced vesicle calcification. These data suggest that in the context of raised Ca and P, vascular calcification is a modifiable, cell-mediated process regulated by vesicle release. These vesicles contain mineralization inhibitors derived from VSMC and serum, and perturbation of the production or function of these inhibitors would lead to accelerated vascular calcification.
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              Autophagy regulates cholesterol efflux from macrophage foam cells via lysosomal acid lipase.

              The lipid droplet (LD) is the major site of cholesterol storage in macrophage foam cells and is a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of atherosclerosis. Cholesterol, stored as cholesteryl esters (CEs), is liberated from this organelle and delivered to cholesterol acceptors. The current paradigm attributes all cytoplasmic CE hydrolysis to the action of neutral CE hydrolases. Here, we demonstrate an important role for lysosomes in LD CE hydrolysis in cholesterol-loaded macrophages, in addition to that mediated by neutral hydrolases. Furthermore, we demonstrate that LDs are delivered to lysosomes via autophagy, where lysosomal acid lipase (LAL) acts to hydrolyze LD CE to generate free cholesterol mainly for ABCA1-dependent efflux; this process is specifically induced upon macrophage cholesterol loading. We conclude that, in macrophage foam cells, lysosomal hydrolysis contributes to the mobilization of LD-associated cholesterol for reverse cholesterol transport. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

                Author and article information

                Vasc Biol
                Vasc Biol
                Vascular Biology
                Bioscientifica Ltd (Bristol )
                30 September 2022
                01 February 2022
                : 4
                : 1
                : 19-27
                [1 ]Department of Cardiology , The First Central Clinical College of Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin, China
                [2 ]Department of Cardiology , Tianjin First Central Hospital, Tianjin, China
                [3 ]Department of Cardiology , Longgang People’s Hospital of Shenzhen, Shenzhen, Guangdong, China
                [4 ]Department of Nuclear Medicine , Shanghai Tenth People’s Hospital, Tongji University, Shanghai, China
                Author notes
                Correspondence should be addressed to C Lu or J Yang: 5020200072@ 123456nankai.edu.cn or yangjs@ 123456impcas.ac.cn
                Author information
                © The authors

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

                : 13 March 2022
                : 08 September 2022

                urocortin ii,vascular calcification,rat adventitial fibroblasts,wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway


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