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      Detection of mycotoxins produced by Fusarium species in Colombia Translated title: Detección de micotoxinas producidas por especies de Fusarium en Colombia

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          Abstract

          Abstract The genus Fusarium produces mycotoxins that are metabolites of low molecular weight that affect the quality of crops, and even more importantly, they affect the health of humans and animals. Among those that cause damage to health are tricho-thecenes, fumonisins, and zearalenones. The objective of this study was to quantify the mycotoxins produced by species of the genus Fusarium from a population of isolates obtained from different crops and locations in Colombia. From 206 isolates, only 14 amplified to regions associated with mycotoxins de-oxynivalenol (DON) belonging to the group of trichothecenes, fumonisin (FUM) and zearalenone (ZEA) using PCR. Each isolate with the presence of mycotoxins was conserved in potato dextrose agar (PDA) medium. Eight days after seeding in corn kernel medium, the samples were processed to perform the quantitative analysis of DON, ZEA and FUM using an ELISA kit based on enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. The results show that mycotoxins were present in the evaluated isolates and their levels were above the standards regulated by Mercosur and the European Union. The use of immunosorbent assays using the ELISA technique becomes a useful tool to detect and quantify mycotoxins of species of the genus Fusarium that affect different crops in Colombia.

          Translated abstract

          RESUMEN El género Fusarium produce micotoxinas que son metabolitos de bajo peso molecular que afectan la calidad de los cultivos y especialmente la salud de humanos y animales. Entre las que causan daños a la salud se encuentran los tricotecenos, las fumonisinas y las zearalenonas. El objetivo de este estudio fue cuantificar las micotoxinas producidas por especies del género Fusarium de una población de aislamientos obtenida de diferentes cultivos y localidades de Colombia. De 206 aislamientos, sólo 14 amplificaron regiones asociadas a las micotoxinas deoxinivalenol (DON), que pertenece al grupo de los tricotecenos, fumonisina (FUM) y zearalenona (ZEA) usando PCR. Cada uno de los aislamientos con presencia de micotoxinas se conservaron en medio papa dextrosa agar (PDA). Ocho días después de la siembra en medio de granos de maíz, las muestras se procesaron para realizar el análisis cuantitativo de DON, ZEA y FUM utilizando un kit de ELISA basado en ensayos de inmunoabsorción ligados a una enzima. Los resultados revelan la presencia de micotoxinas en los aislamientos evaluados cuyos niveles se encuentran por encima de los estándares regulados por Mercosur y la Unión Europea. El uso de ensayos de inmunoabsorción por medio de la técnica de ELISA se convierte en una herramienta útil para detectar y cuantificar micotoxinas de especies del género Fusarium que afectan diferentes cultivos en Colombia.

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          Mycotoxins

          Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites produced by microfungi that are capable of causing disease and death in humans and other animals. Because of their pharmacological activity, some mycotoxins or mycotoxin derivatives have found use as antibiotics, growth promotants, and other kinds of drugs; still others have been implicated as chemical warfare agents. This review focuses on the most important ones associated with human and veterinary diseases, including aflatoxin, citrinin, ergot akaloids, fumonisins, ochratoxin A, patulin, trichothecenes, and zearalenone.
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            Molecular biology of Fusarium mycotoxins.

            As the 20th century ended, Fusarium mycotoxicology entered the age of genomics. With complete genomes of Fusarium graminearum and F. verticillioides and several Fusarium gene expression sequence databases on hand, researchers worldwide are working at a rapid pace to identify mycotoxin biosynthetic and regulatory genes. Seven classes of mycotoxin biosynthetic genes or gene clusters have been identified in Fusarium to date; four are polyketide synthase gene clusters for equisetin, fumonisins, fusarins, and zearalenones. Other Fusarium mycotoxin biosynthetic genes include a terpene cyclase gene cluster for trichothecenes, a cyclic peptide synthetase for enniatins, and a cytochrome P450 for butenolide. From the perspective of the United States Department of Agriculture, the ultimate goal of research on Fusarium molecular biology is to reduce mycotoxins in cereal grains. With this goal in mind, efforts have focused on identifying aspects of mycotoxin biosynthesis and regulation that can be exploited for mycotoxin control. New information on fungal and plant genomes and gene expression will continue to provide information on genes important for fungal-plant interactions and to facilitate the development of targeted approaches for breeding and engineering crops for resistance to Fusarium infection and mycotoxin contamination.
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              Natural functions of mycotoxins and control of their biosynthesis in fungi.

              Mycotoxins are harmful secondary metabolites produced by a range of widespread fungi belonging in the main to Fusarium, Aspergillus and Penicillium genera. But why should fungi produce toxins? And how is the biosynthesis of these toxins regulated? Several separate factors are now known to be capable of modulating mycotoxin synthesis; however, in this study, focussing just on mycotoxins whose regulatory mechanisms have already been established, we introduce a further factor based on a novel consideration. Various different mycotoxin biosynthetic pathways appear to share a common factor in that they are all susceptible to the influence of reactive oxygen species. In fact, when a fungus receives an external stimulus, it reacts by activating, through a well-defined signal cascade, a profound change in its lifestyle. This change usually leads to the activation of global gene regulators and, in particular, of transcription factors which modulate mycotoxin gene cluster expression. Some mycotoxins have a clear-cut role both in generating a pathogenetic process, i.e. fumonisins and some trichothecenes, and in competing with other organisms, i.e. patulin. In other cases, such as aflatoxins, more than one role can be hypothesised. In this review, we suggest an "oxidative stress theory of mycotoxin biosynthesis" to explain the role and the regulation of some of the above mentioned toxins.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                agc
                Agronomía Colombiana
                Agron. colomb.
                Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Facultad de Agronomía (Bogotá, Distrito Capital, Colombia )
                0120-9965
                August 2020
                : 38
                : 2
                : 197-204
                Affiliations
                [2] Palmira orgnameUniversidad Nacional de Colombia orgdiv1Facultad de Ciencias Agropecuarias Colombia
                [1] Pasto Nariño orgnameUniversidad de Nariño orgdiv1Facultad de Ciencias Agrícolas Colombia
                Article
                S0120-99652020000200197 S0120-9965(20)03800200197
                10.15446/agron.colomb.v38n2.77176
                5f2291e6-9257-4ccf-83a7-96dc8a5c57dc

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

                History
                : 09 February 2019
                : 23 July 2020
                Page count
                Figures: 0, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 51, Pages: 8
                Product

                SciELO Colombia

                Categories
                Protection of cultivations

                zearalenone,zearalenona,tricotecenos,fumonisinas,ELISA,trichothecenes,fumonisins

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