+1 Recommend
0 collections
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: not found

      Single amino acids in the carboxyl terminal domain of aquaporin-1 contribute to cGMP-dependent ion channel activation

      1 , 1 , 2 , 3 ,
      BMC Physiology
      BioMed Central

      Read this article at

          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.



          Aquaporin-1 (AQP1) functions as an osmotic water channel and a gated cation channel. Activation of the AQP1 ion conductance by intracellular cGMP was hypothesized to involve the carboxyl (C-) terminus, based on amino acid sequence alignments with cyclic-nucleotide-gated channels and cGMP-selective phosphodiesterases.


          Voltage clamp analyses of human AQP1 channels expressed in Xenopus oocytes demonstrated that the nitric oxide donor, sodium nitroprusside (SNP; 3–14 mM) activated the ionic conductance response in a dose-dependent manner. Block of soluble guanylate cyclase prevented the response. Enzyme immunoassays confirmed a linear dose-dependent relationship between SNP and the resulting intracellular cGMP levels (up to 1700 fmol cGMP /oocyte at 14 mM SNP). Results here are the first to show that the efficacy of ion channel activation is decreased by mutations of AQP1 at conserved residues in the C-terminal domain (aspartate D237 and lysine K243).


          These data support the idea that the limited amino acid sequence similarities found between three diverse classes of cGMP-binding proteins are significant to the function of AQP1 as a cGMP-gated ion channel, and provide direct evidence for the involvement of the AQP1 C-terminal domain in cGMP-mediated ion channel activation.

          Related collections

          Most cited references42

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          Structural basis of water-specific transport through the AQP1 water channel.

          Water channels facilitate the rapid transport of water across cell membranes in response to osmotic gradients. These channels are believed to be involved in many physiological processes that include renal water conservation, neuro-homeostasis, digestion, regulation of body temperature and reproduction. Members of the water channel superfamily have been found in a range of cell types from bacteria to human. In mammals, there are currently 10 families of water channels, referred to as aquaporins (AQP): AQP0-AQP9. Here we report the structure of the aquaporin 1 (AQP1) water channel to 2.2 A resolution. The channel consists of three topological elements, an extracellular and a cytoplasmic vestibule connected by an extended narrow pore or selectivity filter. Within the selectivity filter, four bound waters are localized along three hydrophilic nodes, which punctuate an otherwise extremely hydrophobic pore segment. This unusual combination of a long hydrophobic pore and a minimal number of solute binding sites facilitates rapid water transport. Residues of the constriction region, in particular histidine 182, which is conserved among all known water-specific channels, are critical in establishing water specificity. Our analysis of the AQP1 pore also indicates that the transport of protons through this channel is highly energetically unfavourable.
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            Structure of a glycerol-conducting channel and the basis for its selectivity.

            Membrane channel proteins of the aquaporin family are highly selective for permeation of specific small molecules, with absolute exclusion of ions and charged solutes and without dissipation of the electrochemical potential across the cell membrane. We report the crystal structure of the Escherichia coli glycerol facilitator (GlpF) with its primary permeant substrate glycerol at 2.2 angstrom resolution. Glycerol molecules line up in an amphipathic channel in single file. In the narrow selectivity filter of the channel the glycerol alkyl backbone is wedged against a hydrophobic corner, and successive hydroxyl groups form hydrogen bonds with a pair of acceptor, and donor atoms. Two conserved aspartic acid-proline-alanine motifs form a key interface between two gene-duplicated segments that each encode three-and-one-half membrane-spanning helices around the channel. This structure elucidates the mechanism of selective permeability for linear carbohydrates and suggests how ions and water are excluded.
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              Distribution of the aquaporin CHIP in secretory and resorptive epithelia and capillary endothelia.

              The existence of water-selective channels has been postulated to explain the high water permeability of erythrocytes and certain epithelial cells. The aquaporin CHIP (channel-forming integral membrane protein of 28 kDa), a molecular water channel, is abundant in erythrocytes and water-permeable segments of the nephron. To determine whether CHIP may mediate transmembrane water movement in other water-permeable epithelia, membranes of multiple organs were studied by immunoblotting, immunohistochemistry, and immunoelectron microscopy using affinity-purified anti-CHIP IgG. The apical membrane of the choroid plexus epithelium was densely stained, implying a role for CHIP in the secretion of cerebrospinal fluid. In the eye, CHIP was abundant in apical and basolateral domains of ciliary epithelium, the site of aqueous humor secretion, and also in lens epithelium and corneal endothelium. CHIP was detected in membranes of hepatic bile ducts and water-resorptive epithelium of gall bladder, suggesting a role in bile secretion and concentration. CHIP was not detected in glandular epithelium of mammary, salivary, or lacrimal glands, suggesting the existence of other water-channel isoforms. CHIP was also not detected within the epithelium of the gastrointestinal mucosa. CHIP was abundant in membranes of intestinal lacteals and continuous capillaries in diverse tissues, including cardiac and skeletal muscle, thus providing a molecular explanation for the known water permeability of certain lymphatics and capillary beds. These studies underscore the hypothesis that CHIP plays a major role in transcellular water movement throughout the body.

                Author and article information

                BMC Physiol
                BMC Physiology
                BioMed Central (London )
                15 October 2003
                : 3
                : 12
                [1 ]Program in Neuroscience, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona, 85724-5051, USA
                [2 ]Dept. of Physiology, University of Arizona College of Medicine, Tucson, Arizona, USA
                [3 ]Dept. of Pharmacology, University of Arizona College of Medicine, Tucson, Arizona, USA
                Copyright © 2003 Boassa and Yool; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article: verbatim copying and redistribution of this article are permitted in all media for any purpose, provided this notice is preserved along with the article's original URL.
                : 22 April 2003
                : 15 October 2003
                Research Article

                Anatomy & Physiology
                Anatomy & Physiology


                Comment on this article