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      Aging, Circadian Weight Change, and Nocturia

      Nephron Physiology

      S. Karger AG

      Aging, Circadian weight change, Nocturia, Sodium excretion

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          Background: Normal young individuals excrete more sodium in their urine during the day than overnight, but the reverse occurs in older individuals with nocturia. The reason is unknown. Methods: First, a self-study was performed, determining the relation between morning and night weight change as an index of volume expansion. This was followed for 1 year and modified, in separate experiments, by assessing either a diuretic (furosemide 40 mg) or recumbency. Weight and in some instances ankle circumference were measured, and day and night urines collected. Second, a community study of 102 individuals was done, measuring circadian weight change and nocturia for 3 days in each subject. Third, measurement of day and night urine electrolytes and weight change was performed in 10 non-nocturics and 12 matched nocturics (age ≧60 years). Results: Salt and water retention occurs during the day and natriuresis and diuresis overnight. Nocturia occurs when weight gain is greater. It is prevented by an afternoon diuretic or daytime recumbency. Conclusions: Idiopathic nocturia is due to daytime volume expansion associated with the upright position. It is hypothesized that this is caused by sodium retention during the day mediated by renal nerve sympathetic activity which together with angiotensin II acts on the kidney to increase tubular sodium reabsorption either directly or by reducing daytime glomerular filtration rate.

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          The burden of adult hypertension in the United States 1999 to 2000: a rising tide.

          This study aims to estimate the absolute number of persons with hypertension (the hypertension burden) and time trends using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey of United States resident adults who had hypertension in 1999 to 2000. This information is vitally important for health policy, medical care, and public health strategy and resource allocation. At least 65 million adults had hypertension in 1999 to 2000. The total hypertension prevalence rate was 31.3%. This value represents adults with elevated systolic or diastolic blood pressure, or using antihypertensive medications (rate of 28.4%; standard error [SE], 1.1), and adults who otherwise by medical history were told at least twice by a physician or other health professional that they had high blood pressure (rate of 2.9%; SE, 0.4). The number of adults with hypertension increased by approximately 30% for 1999 to 2000 compared with at least 50 million for 1988 to 1994. The 50 million value was based on a rate of 23.4% for adults with elevated blood pressure or using antihypertensive medications and 5.5% for adults classified as hypertensive by medical history alone (28.9% total; P<0.001). The approximately 30% increase in the total number of adults with hypertension was almost 4-times greater than the 8.3% increase in total prevalence rate. These trends were associated with increased obesity and an aging and growing population. Approximately 35 million women and 30 million men had hypertension. At least 48 million non-Hispanic white adults, approximately 9 million non-Hispanic black adults, 3 million Mexican American, and 5 million other adults had hypertension in 1999 to 2000.
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              Human ageing and the sympathoadrenal system.

              Over the past three decades the changes in sympathoadrenal function that occur with age in healthy adult humans have been systematically studied using a combination of neurochemical, neurophysiological and haemodynamic experimental approaches. The available experimental evidence indicates that tonic whole-body sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity increases with age. The elevations in SNS activity appear to be region specific, targeting skeletal muscle and the gut, but not obviously the kidney. The SNS tone of the heart is increased, although this appears to be due in part to reduced neuronal reuptake of noradrenaline (norepinephrine). In contrast to SNS activity, tonic adrenaline (epinephrine) secretion from the adrenal medulla is markedly reduced with age. This is not reflected in plasma adrenaline concentrations because of reduced plasma clearance. Despite widely held beliefs to the contrary, sympathoadrenal responsiveness to acute stress is not exaggerated with age in healthy adults. Indeed, adrenaline release in response to acute stress is substantially attenuated in older men. The mechanisms underlying the age-associated increases in SNS activity have not been established, but our preliminary data are consistent with increased subcortical central nervous system (CNS) sympathetic drive. These changes in sympathoadrenal function with advancing age may have a number of important physiological and pathophysiological consequences for human health and disease.

                Author and article information

                Nephron Physiol
                Nephron Physiology
                S. Karger AG
                June 2008
                06 May 2008
                : 109
                : 1
                : p11-p18
                Faculty of Medicine, McGill University, Montreal, Que., Canada
                129653 Nephron Physiol 2008;109:p11
                © 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 5, References: 40, Pages: 1
                Original Paper

                Cardiovascular Medicine, Nephrology

                Sodium excretion, Nocturia, Circadian weight change, Aging


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