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Expedition 316 summary

, , , Expedition 316 Scientists

Proceedings of the IODP

Integrated Ocean Drilling Program

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      Abstract

      Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 316 is part of the Nankai Trough Seismogenic Zone Experiment (NanTroSEIZE). This coordinated multiexpedition drilling project is designed to investigate fault mechanics and seismogenesis along subduction megathrusts through direct sampling, in situ measurements, and long-term monitoring in conjunction with allied laboratory and numerical modeling studies. Expedition 316 was designed to evaluate the deformation, inferred depth of detachment, structural partitioning, fault zone physical characteristics, and fluid flow at the frontal thrust and at the shallow portion of the megasplay system. To accomplish these objectives, drilling was conducted at two sites in the megasplay region, one within the fault zone and one in the slope basin seaward of the megasplay. Two sites were also drilled within the frontal thrust region. During IODP Expedition 314, two of these sites were characterized using logging while drilling. IODP Site C0004 is located along the slope of the accretionary prism landward of the inferred intersection of the megasplay fault zone with the seafloor. Drilling at this site examined the youngest sediments on the slope overlying the accretionary prism; these sediments consist of slowly deposited marine sediments and redeposited material from upslope. This redeposited material provides information about past slope failures, which may be related to past megasplay movement, earthquakes, and tsunamigenesis. The accretionary prism was sampled, and the megasplay fault zone was successfully drilled. The top of the prism corresponds to a prominent unconformity (age gap = ~1 m.y.) that displays mineralization by pyrite and other minerals. Structural observations of core material from the fault zone and two age reversals suggested by nannofossils indicate a complex history of deformation. Sediments under the fault zone were sampled to understand their deformation, consolidation, and fluid flow history. Drilling at IODP Site C0008 targeted the slope basin seaward of the megasplay fault. This basin records the history of fault movement. In addition, sediment layers within this basin provide a reference for sediment underthrusting the splay fault zone at Site C0004. Drilling at IODP Sites C0006 and C0007 allowed examination of the frontal thrust region. At Site C0006, several fault zones within the prism were penetrated before drilling was stopped because of poor conditions. The plate boundary frontal thrust was successfully drilled, and thrust fault material ranging from breccia to fault gouge was successfully recovered at Site C0007.

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      Most cited references 38

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      A model for the motion of the Philippine Sea Plate consistent with NUVEL-1 and geological data

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        Source mechanisms and tectonic significance of historical earthquakes along the nankai trough, Japan

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          The great Sumatra-Andaman earthquake of 26 December 2004.

          The two largest earthquakes of the past 40 years ruptured a 1600-kilometer-long portion of the fault boundary between the Indo-Australian and southeastern Eurasian plates on 26 December 2004 [seismic moment magnitude (Mw) = 9.1 to 9.3] and 28 March 2005 (Mw = 8.6). The first event generated a tsunami that caused more than 283,000 deaths. Fault slip of up to 15 meters occurred near Banda Aceh, Sumatra, but to the north, along the Nicobar and Andaman Islands, rapid slip was much smaller. Tsunami and geodetic observations indicate that additional slow slip occurred in the north over a time scale of 50 minutes or longer.
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            Author and article information

            Journal
            10.2204/iodp.proc.314315316.2009
            Proceedings of the IODP
            Integrated Ocean Drilling Program
            1930-1014
            11 March 2009
            10.2204/iodp.proc.314315316.131.2009

            This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 Unported License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

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