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      Peptides as Therapeutic Agents for Inflammatory-Related Diseases

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          Abstract

          Inflammation is a physiological mechanism used by organisms to defend themselves against infection, restoring homeostasis in damaged tissues. It represents the starting point of several chronic diseases such as asthma, skin disorders, cancer, cardiovascular syndrome, arthritis, and neurological diseases. An increasing number of studies highlight the over-expression of inflammatory molecules such as oxidants, cytokines, chemokines, matrix metalloproteinases, and transcription factors into damaged tissues. The treatment of inflammatory disorders is usually linked to the use of unspecific small molecule drugs that can cause undesired side effects. Recently, many efforts are directed to develop alternative and more selective anti-inflammatory therapies, several of them imply the use of peptides. Indeed, peptides demonstrated as elected lead compounds toward several targets for their high specificity as well as recent and innovative synthetic strategies. Several endogenous peptides identified during inflammatory responses showed anti-inflammatory activities by inhibiting, reducing, and/or modulating the expression and activity of mediators. This review aims to discuss the potentialities and therapeutic use of peptides as anti-inflammatory agents in the treatment of different inflammation-related diseases and to explore the importance of peptide-based therapies.

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          Most cited references 99

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          Network medicine: a network-based approach to human disease.

          Given the functional interdependencies between the molecular components in a human cell, a disease is rarely a consequence of an abnormality in a single gene, but reflects the perturbations of the complex intracellular and intercellular network that links tissue and organ systems. The emerging tools of network medicine offer a platform to explore systematically not only the molecular complexity of a particular disease, leading to the identification of disease modules and pathways, but also the molecular relationships among apparently distinct (patho)phenotypes. Advances in this direction are essential for identifying new disease genes, for uncovering the biological significance of disease-associated mutations identified by genome-wide association studies and full-genome sequencing, and for identifying drug targets and biomarkers for complex diseases.
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            SOCS proteins, cytokine signalling and immune regulation.

            Suppressor of cytokine signalling (SOCS) proteins are inhibitors of cytokine signalling pathways. Studies have shown that SOCS proteins are key physiological regulators of both innate and adaptive immunity. These molecules positively and negatively regulate macrophage and dendritic-cell activation and are essential for T-cell development and differentiation. Evidence is also emerging of the involvement of SOCS proteins in diseases of the immune system. In this Review we bring together data from recent studies on SOCS proteins and their role in immunity, and propose a cohesive model of how cytokine signalling regulates immune-cell function.
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              Inflammatory mechanisms in ischemic stroke: therapeutic approaches

              Acute ischemic stroke is the third leading cause of death in industrialized countries and the most frequent cause of permanent disability in adults worldwide. Despite advances in the understanding of the pathophysiology of cerebral ischemia, therapeutic options remain limited. Only recombinant tissue-plasminogen activator (rt-PA) for thrombolysis is currently approved for use in the treatment of this devastating disease. However, its use is limited by its short therapeutic window (three hours), complications derived essentially from the risk of hemorrhage, and the potential damage from reperfusion/ischemic injury. Two important pathophysiological mechanisms involved during ischemic stroke are oxidative stress and inflammation. Brain tissue is not well equipped with antioxidant defenses, so reactive oxygen species and other free radicals/oxidants, released by inflammatory cells, threaten tissue viability in the vicinity of the ischemic core. This review will discuss the molecular aspects of oxidative stress and inflammation in ischemic stroke and potential therapeutic strategies that target neuroinflammation and the innate immune system. Currently, little is known about endogenous counterregulatory immune mechanisms. However, recent studies showing that regulatory T cells are major cerebroprotective immunomodulators after stroke suggest that targeting the endogenous adaptive immune response may offer novel promising neuroprotectant therapies.
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                Author and article information

                Affiliations
                Department of Pharmacy, MASBC, Metodologie Analitiche per la Salvaguardia dei Beni Culturali University of Naples “Federico II”, 80134 Naples, Italy; floriodaniele1@ 123456gmail.com (D.F.); daniela.marasco@ 123456unina.it (D.M.)
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: sara.lamanna@ 123456unina.it (S.L.M.); concetta.dinatale@ 123456unina.it (C.D.N.); Tel.: +39-081-253-2043 (S.L.M. & C.D.N.)
                Journal
                Int J Mol Sci
                Int J Mol Sci
                ijms
                International Journal of Molecular Sciences
                MDPI
                1422-0067
                11 September 2018
                September 2018
                : 19
                : 9
                30208640 6163503 10.3390/ijms19092714 ijms-19-02714
                © 2018 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

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