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      III. NKF-K/DOQI Clinical Practice Guidelines for Vascular Access: Update 2000

      American Journal of Kidney Diseases

      Elsevier BV

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          Prospective randomised trial of povidone-iodine, alcohol, and chlorhexidine for prevention of infection associated with central venous and arterial catheters.

          More than 90% of all intravascular device-related septicaemias are due to central venous or arterial catheters. To assess the efficacy of cutaneous antisepsis to prevent catheter-associated infection, we prospectively studied three antiseptics for disinfection of patients' central venous and arterial catheter insertion sites in a surgical intensive care unit. 668 catheters were randomised to 10% povidone-iodine, 70% alcohol, or 2% aqueous chlorhexidine disinfection of the site before insertion and for site care every other day thereafter. Chlorhexidine was associated with the lowest incidence of local catheter-related infection (2.3 per 100 catheters vs 7.1 and 9.3 for alcohol and povidone-iodine, respectively, p = 0.02) and catheter-related bacteraemia (0.5 vs 2.3 and 2.6). Of the 14 infusion-related bacteraemias (4 due to contaminated infusate or catheter hub, 10 due to infected catheters), 1 was in the chlorhexidine group and 13 were in the other two groups (odds ratio 0.16, p = 0.04). We conclude that use of 2% chlorhexidine, rather than 10% povidone-iodine or 70% alcohol, for cutaneous disinfection before insertion of an intravascular device and for post-insertion site care can substantially reduce the incidence of device-related infection.
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            Ultrasound-guided cannulation of the internal jugular vein. A prospective, randomized study.

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              Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage and infection in patients on hemodialysis. Efficacy of antibiotic prophylaxis.

              We conducted a five-year prospective controlled study of prophylaxis of Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage and infection among patients in a hemodialysis unit. Carriers tended to have chronic colonization with a single phage type. S. aureus infections occurred significantly more frequently in carriers than in noncarriers and, in 93 percent of the infected carriers, were caused by the same phage type as that carried in the nares. Neither intravenous vancomycin nor topical bacitracin was found to be efficacious in eradicating nasal carriage. However, oral rifampin given for five days decreased S. aureus carriage over a one-month follow-up period, but within three months colonization of the nares recurred in most carriers, often with an S. aureus of the original phage type. Carriers were then randomly assigned to receive either rifampin or no prophylaxis. Rifampin was readministered at three-month intervals if culture of the anterior nares yielded S. aureus. Infections with S. aureus occurred significantly more frequently in carriers given no prophylaxis than in those given a full course of rifampin. S. aureus resistant to rifampin was isolated from the anterior nares of four patients, but these isolates were not implicated in any infections. The incidence of infection at the dialysis access site, skin, and soft tissue of patients on hemodialysis can be decreased by interventions directed at nasal carriage of S. aureus.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                American Journal of Kidney Diseases
                American Journal of Kidney Diseases
                Elsevier BV
                02726386
                January 2001
                January 2001
                : 37
                : 1
                : S137-S181
                Article
                10.1016/S0272-6386(01)70007-8
                © 2001

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