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      Lower Body Negative Pressure: Physiological Effects, Applications, and Implementation

      1 , 1 , 1 , 1
      Physiological Reviews
      American Physiological Society

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          Abstract

          This review presents lower body negative pressure (LBNP) as a unique tool to investigate the physiology of integrated systemic compensatory responses to altered hemodynamic patterns during conditions of central hypovolemia in humans. An early review published in Physiological Reviews over 40 yr ago (Wolthuis et al. Physiol Rev 54: 566–595, 1974) focused on the use of LBNP as a tool to study effects of central hypovolemia, while more than a decade ago a review appeared that focused on LBNP as a model of hemorrhagic shock (Cooke et al. J Appl Physiol (1985) 96: 1249–1261, 2004). Since then there has been a great deal of new research that has applied LBNP to investigate complex physiological responses to a variety of challenges including orthostasis, hemorrhage, and other important stressors seen in humans such as microgravity encountered during spaceflight. The LBNP stimulus has provided novel insights into the physiology underlying areas such as intolerance to reduced central blood volume, sex differences concerning blood pressure regulation, autonomic dysfunctions, adaptations to exercise training, and effects of space flight. Furthermore, approaching cardiovascular assessment using prediction models for orthostatic capacity in healthy populations, derived from LBNP tolerance protocols, has provided important insights into the mechanisms of orthostatic hypotension and central hypovolemia, especially in some patient populations as well as in healthy subjects. This review also presents a concise discussion of mathematical modeling regarding compensatory responses induced by LBNP. Given the diverse applications of LBNP, it is to be expected that new and innovative applications of LBNP will be developed to explore the complex physiological mechanisms that underline health and disease.

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          Gender differences for non-fatal unintentional fall related injuries among older adults.

          To quantify gender differences for non-fatal unintentional fall related injuries among US adults age 65 years and older treated in hospital emergency departments (EDs). The authors analyzed data from a nationally representative sample of ED visits for January 2001 through December 2001, available through the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System All Injury Program (NEISS-AIP). For each initial ED visit, coders record one principal diagnosis (usually the most severe) and one primary part of the body affected. Based on 22,560 cases, an estimated 1.64 million older adults were treated in EDs for unintentional fall injuries. Of these, approximately 1.16 million, or 70.5%, were women. Fractures, contusions/abrasions, and lacerations accounted for more than three quarters of all injuries. Rates for injury diagnoses were generally higher among women, most notably for fractures which were 2.2 times higher than for men. For all parts of the body, women's injury rates exceeded those of men. Rate ratios were greatest for injuries of the leg/foot (2.3), arm/hand (2.0), and lower trunk (2.0). The hospitalization rate for women was 1.8 times that for men. Among older adults, non-fatal fall related injuries disproportionately affected women. Much is known about effective fall prevention strategies. We need to refine, promote, and implement these interventions. Additional research is needed to tailor interventions for different populations and to determine gender differences in the underlying causes and/or circumstances of falls. This information is vital for developing and implementing targeted fall prevention strategies.
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            Assessment of autonomic function in humans by heart rate spectral analysis

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              Comparison of finger and intra-arterial blood pressure monitoring at rest and during laboratory testing.

              The accuracy of blood pressure values obtained by continuous noninvasive finger blood pressure recording via the FINAPRES device was evaluated by comparison with simultaneous intraarterial monitoring both at rest and during performance of tests known to induce fast and often marked changes in blood pressure. The comparison was performed in 24 normotensive or essential hypertensive subjects. The average discrepancy between finger and intra-arterial blood pressure recorded over a 30-minute rest period was 6.5 +/- 2.6 mm Hg and 5.4 +/- 2.9 mm Hg for systolic and diastolic blood pressure, respectively; a close between-method correspondence was also demonstrated by linear regression analysis. The beat-to-beat changes in finger systolic and diastolic blood pressure were on average similar to those measured intra-arterially during tests that induced a pressor or depressor response (hand-grip, cold pressor test, diving test, Valsalva maneuver, intravenous injections of phenylephrine and trinitroglycerine) as well as during tests that caused vasomotor changes without major variations in blood pressure (application of lower body negative pressure, passive leg raising). The average between-method discrepancy in the evaluation of blood pressure changes was never greater than 4.3 and 2.0 mm Hg for systolic and diastolic blood pressure, respectively; the corresponding standard deviations ranged between 4.6 and 1.6 mm Hg. Beat-to-beat computer analysis of blood pressure variability over the 30-minute rest period provided standard deviations almost identical when calculated by separate consideration of intra-arterial and finger blood pressure tracings (3.7 and 3.8 mm Hg, respectively).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Physiological Reviews
                Physiological Reviews
                American Physiological Society
                0031-9333
                1522-1210
                January 01 2019
                January 01 2019
                : 99
                : 1
                : 807-851
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Physiology Section, Otto Loewi Research Center for Vascular Biology, Immunology and Inflammation, Medical University of Graz, Graz, Austria; Department of Biomedical Physiology and Kinesiology, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, British Columbia, Canada; Battlefield Health & Trauma Center for Human Integrative Physiology, Combat Casualty Care Research Program, US Army Institute of Surgical Research, JBSA Fort Sam Houston, Texas
                Article
                10.1152/physrev.00006.2018
                5f65bae1-855a-4cdb-8fb3-9750406948d1
                © 2019

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