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      Sleep-Disordered Breathing and Proteinuria in Overweight and Obese Children and Adolescents

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          Objectives: To assess whether sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) in overweight children and adolescents has an additional effect on the spectrum of urinary albumin to protein loss, as markers of early kidney dysfunction. Methods: Prospective study in a clinical sample of overweight children and adolescents. Each subject underwent anthropometry, blood sampling, oral glucose tolerance test and polysomnography. From a 24-hour urine collection, albumin excretion rate and total urinary protein to creatinine ratio (UPCR) were calculated. Results: 94 nondiabetic subjects were included (mean age = 11.0 ± 2.5, 42 boys). Average BMI z-score was 2.25 ± 0.47 (26 overweight subjects and 68 obese subjects). There was no difference in albumin excretion rate or UPCR between subjects with and without SDB. None of the SDB parameters correlated with the transformed albumin excretion rate or UPCR. Albumin excretion rate significantly correlated with fasting insulin and C-peptide and with post-challenge glucose, insulin and C-peptide levels, while UPCR correlated with fasting and post-challenge C-peptide levels. Multiple regression indicated that post-challenge glucose levels were the most important predictors of albumin excretion rate. Conclusion: Insulin resistance, and not SDB, was associated with increased levels of albuminuria, indicating early renal dysfunction, in this clinical sample of overweight children and adolescents.

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          Most cited references 28

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          Childhood obesity.

          In March 2004 a group of 65 physicians and other health professionals representing nine countries on four continents convened in Israel to discuss the widespread public health crisis in childhood obesity. Their aim was to explore the available evidence and develop a consensus on the way forward. The process was rigorous, although time and resources did not permit the development of formal evidence-based guidelines. In the months before meeting, participants were allocated to seven groups covering prevalence, causes, risks, prevention, diagnosis, treatment, and psychology. Through electronic communication each group selected the key issues for their area, searched the literature, and developed a draft document. Over the 3-d meeting, these papers were debated and finalized by each group before presenting to the full group for further discussion and agreement. In developing a consensus statement, this international group has presented the evidence, developed recommendations, and provided a platform aimed toward future corrective action and ongoing debate in the international community.
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            Adiposity in childhood predicts obesity and insulin resistance in young adulthood.

            To determine whether adiposity in children predicts adiposity, insulin resistance, and abnormal lipid levels in young adults. Children (n = 31) were recruited into an epidemiologic study at age 13.3 +/- 0.3 years and had blood pressure, weight, and height measured. They were reevaluated at age 21.8 +/- 0.3 years at which time the measurements were repeated, a euglycemic insulin clamp was performed, and fasting lipid levels were measured. All values are expressed as mean +/- SEM. Data were analyzed by analysis of variance and linear regression analysis. Body mass index (BMI) in childhood (22.6 +/- 0.6) was highly correlated with BMI in young adulthood (26.9 +/- 0.9). Childhood BMI was also inversely correlated with young adult glucose utilization (r = -0.5, P = .006) and positively correlated with total cholesterol (r = 0.37, P = .05), and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (r = 0.48, P = .01). These data confirm that adiposity in childhood is a strong predictor of young adult adiposity. In addition, these results demonstrate that cardiovascular risk in young adulthood is highly related to the degree of adiposity as early as age 13.
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              Sleep-disordered breathing in overweight and obese children and adolescents: prevalence, characteristics and the role of fat distribution.

              To determine the prevalence of sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) in a clinical sample of overweight and obese children and adolescents, and to examine the contribution of fat distribution. Consecutive subjects without chronic lung disease, neuromuscular disease, laryngomalacia, or any genetic or craniofacial syndrome were recruited. All underwent measurements of neck and waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, % fat mass and polysomnography. Obstructive apnoea index > or =1 or obstructive apnoea-hypopnoea index (OAHI) > or =2, further classified as mild (2 or =5), were used as diagnostic criteria for obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA). Central sleep apnoea was diagnosed when central apnoeas/hypopnoeas > or =10 s were present accompanied by >1 age-specific bradytachycardia and/or >1 desaturation <89%. Subjects with desaturation < or =85% after central events of any duration were also diagnosed with central sleep apnoea. Primary snoring was diagnosed when: snoring was detected by microphone and normal obstructive indices and saturation. 27 overweight and 64 obese subjects were included (40 boys; mean (standard deviation (SD)) age 11.2 (2.6) years). Among the obese children, 53% were normal, 11% had primary snoring, 11% had mild OSA, 8% had moderate-to-severe OSA and 17% had central sleep apnoea. Half of the patients with central sleep apnoea had desaturation <85%. Only enlarged tonsils were predictive of moderate-to-severe OSA. On the other hand, higher levels of abdominal obesity and fat mass were associated with central sleep apnoea. SDB is very common in this clinical sample of overweight children. OSA is not associated with abdominal obesity. On the contrary, higher levels of abdominal obesity and fat mass are associated with central sleep apnoea.

                Author and article information

                Horm Res Paediatr
                Hormone Research in Paediatrics
                S. Karger AG
                October 2008
                05 September 2008
                : 70
                : 4
                : 224-229
                Departments of aPediatrics, bDiabetology, Metabolism and Clinical Nutrition, and cRespiratory Medicine, Antwerp University Hospital, Antwerp, Belgium
                151594 Horm Res 2008;70:224–229
                © 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 2, References: 47, Pages: 6
                Original Paper


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