Autologous split-thickness skin grafts are the preferred treatment for excised burn wounds, but donor sites for autografting are often limited in patients with extensive burns. A number of alternative treatments are already in use to treat large burns and ulcers. Despite intense efforts to develop tissue-engineered skin, delayed or absent vascularization is one of the major reasons for tissue-engineered skin engraftment failure. To overcome these problems, we developed a scaffold-free 3-dimensional (3D) skin substitute containing vascular networks that combine dermal fibroblasts, endothelial cells, and epidermal keratinocytes based on our layer-by-layer cell coating technique. We transplanted the pre-vascularized 3D skin substitutes onto full-thickness skin defects on severe combined immunodeficiency mice to assess their integration with the host tissue and effects on wound healing. We used non-vascularized 3D skin substitutes as a control. Vessels containing red blood cells were evident in the non-vascularized control by day 14. However, blood perfusion of the human-derived vasculature could be detected within 7 days of grafting. Moreover, the pre-vascularized 3D skin substitutes had high graft survival and their epidermal layers were progressively replaced by mouse epidermis. We propose that a novel dermo-epidermal 3D skin substitute containing blood vessels can promote efficient reconstruction of full-thickness skin defects.