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      Ex Vivo Administration of Mesenchymal Stromal Cells in Kidney Grafts Against Ischemia-reperfusion Injury—Effective Delivery Without Kidney Function Improvement Posttransplant

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          Mesenchymal stem cell perspective: cell biology to clinical progress

          The terms MSC and MSCs have become the preferred acronym to describe a cell and a cell population of multipotential stem/progenitor cells commonly referred to as mesenchymal stem cells, multipotential stromal cells, mesenchymal stromal cells, and mesenchymal progenitor cells. The MSCs can differentiate to important lineages under defined conditions in vitro and in limited situations after implantation in vivo. MSCs were isolated and described about 30 years ago and now there are over 55,000 publications on MSCs readily available. Here, we have focused on human MSCs whenever possible. The MSCs have broad anti-inflammatory and immune-modulatory properties. At present, these provide the greatest focus of human MSCs in clinical testing; however, the properties of cultured MSCs in vitro suggest they can have broader applications. The medical utility of MSCs continues to be investigated in over 950 clinical trials. There has been much progress in understanding MSCs over the years, and there is a strong foundation for future scientific research and clinical applications, but also some important questions remain to be answered. Developing further methods to understand and unlock MSC potential through intracellular and intercellular signaling, biomedical engineering, delivery methods and patient selection should all provide substantial advancements in the coming years and greater clinical opportunities. The expansive and growing field of MSC research is teaching us basic human cell biology as well as how to use this type of cell for cellular therapy in a variety of clinical settings, and while much promise is evident, careful new work is still needed.
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            Circulating mutant DNA to assess tumor dynamics.

            The measurement of circulating nucleic acids has transformed the management of chronic viral infections such as HIV. The development of analogous markers for individuals with cancer could similarly enhance the management of their disease. DNA containing somatic mutations is highly tumor specific and thus, in theory, can provide optimum markers. However, the number of circulating mutant gene fragments is small compared to the number of normal circulating DNA fragments, making it difficult to detect and quantify them with the sensitivity required for meaningful clinical use. In this study, we applied a highly sensitive approach to quantify circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) in 162 plasma samples from 18 subjects undergoing multimodality therapy for colorectal cancer. We found that ctDNA measurements could be used to reliably monitor tumor dynamics in subjects with cancer who were undergoing surgery or chemotherapy. We suggest that this personalized genetic approach could be generally applied to individuals with other types of cancer.
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              The Life and Fate of Mesenchymal Stem Cells

              Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are present throughout the body and are thought to play a role in tissue regeneration and control of inflammation. MSC can be easily expanded in vitro and their potential as a therapeutic option for degenerative and inflammatory disease is therefore intensively investigated. Whilst it was initially thought that MSC would replace dysfunctional cells and migrate to sites of injury to interact with inflammatory cells, experimental evidence indicates that the majority of administered MSC get trapped in capillary networks and have a short life span. In this review, we discuss current knowledge on the migratory properties of endogenous and exogenous MSC and confer on how culture-induced modifications of MSC may affect these properties. Finally, we will discuss how, despite their limited survival, administered MSC can bring about their therapeutic effects.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Transplantation
                Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health)
                0041-1337
                2021
                September 18 2020
                March 2021
                : 105
                : 3
                : 517-528
                Article
                10.1097/TP.0000000000003429
                © 2021
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