Gliomas are complex and heterogeneous brain tumors with poor prognosis. Glioma cells can communicate with their surroundings to create a tumor-permissive microenvironment. Exosomes represent a new means of intercellular communication by delivering various bioactive molecules, including proteins, lipids and nucleic acids, and participate in tumor initiation and progression. Noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) including microRNA, long-noncoding RNA, and circular RNA, account for a large portion of human transcriptome and play important roles in various pathophysiological processes, especially in cancers. In addition, ncRNAs can be selectively packaged, secreted and transferred between cells in exosomes and modulate numerous hallmarks of glioma, such as proliferation, invasion, angiogenesis, immune-escape, and treatment resistance. Hence, the strategies of specifically targeting exosomal ncRNAs could be attractive therapeutic options. Exosomes are able to cross the blood brain barrier (BBB), and are readily accessible in nearly all types of human biofluids, which make them the promising biomarkers for gliomas. Additionally, given the biocompatibility of exosomes, they can be engineered to deliver therapeutic factors, such as RNA, proteins and drugs, to target cells for therapeutic applications. Here, we reviewed current research on the roles of exosomal ncRNAs in glioma progression. We also discussed their potential clinical applications as novel biomarkers and therapeutics.