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      Taxonomy of Verrucaria species characterised by large spores, perithecia leaving pits in the rock and a pale thin thallus in Finland

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          Abstract

          Species of Verrucaria , characterised by large spores (at least some spores exceeding 25 µm in length), perithecia leaving pits in the rock and a pale thin thallus, form a taxonomically-difficult and poorly-known group. In this study, such species occurring in Finland are revised, based on ITS sequences and morphology. Maximum likelihood analysis of ITS sequence data was used to examine if the species belong to the Thelidium group, as suggested by BLAST search. Twelve species are accepted in Finland: Verrucaria bifurcata sp. nov., V. cavernarum sp. nov., V. devergens , V. difficilis sp. nov., V. foveolata , V. fuscozonata sp. nov., V. karelica , V. kuusamoensis sp. nov., V. subdevergens sp. nov., V. subjunctiva , V. subtilis and V. vacillans sp. nov. Verrucaria foveolata is nested in V. subjunctiva in the phylogeny, but due to morphological and ecogeographical differences, the two taxa are treated as separate species pending further studies. Based on the analysis, the study species belong to the Thelidium group. The studied species show a rather high infraspecific morphological, but a low genetic variation. Furthermore, they show considerable overlap in their morphology and many specimens cannot be reliably identified, based on morphology only. All species are restricted to calcareous rocks. Verrucaria alpigena , V. cinereorufa and V. hochstetteri are excluded from the lichen flora of Finland. Verrucaria grossa is considered a species with unresolved identity. Verrucaria foveolata and V. subtilis are rather common on calcareous rocks of Finland while V. devergens and V. kuusamoensis are restricted to northern Finland. Verrucaria subjunctiva occurs mainly in northern Finland. Verrucaria bifurcata has been found only from southern Finland. Verrucaria difficilis has few localities both in SW and NE Finland. Verrucaria vacillans is restricted to calcareous rocks (dolomite) on the mountains of the NW corner of Finland. Verrucaria fuscozonata , V. karelica and V. subdevergens occur only in the Oulanka area in NE Finland. A lectotype is designated for V. subjunctiva . The morphology of the Finnish species was compared with 51 European species of Verrucaria presumably belonging to the Thelidium group.

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          Most cited references 43

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          Cryptic species in lichen-forming fungi

          This contribution provides a synopsis of the presentations and discussions during the SIG session on cryptic speciation in lichen-forming fungi held during IMC9. In several cases, a re-examination of morphology against the background of molecular phylogenetic evidence revealed, sometimes subtle, morphological and/or chemical characters, supporting the distinction of particular clades at species level. However, there are also examples of cryptic species in which no morphological characters could be identified to distinguish between lineages. Several cases were presented in which distinct lineages are correlated with biogeographical patterns. When and how to name cryptic species was debated, and the use of terms such as “complex” or “aggregate” commended where the taxa formed part of a single lineage.
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            Using a multigene phylogenetic analysis to assess generic delineation and character evolution in Verrucariaceae (Verrucariales, Ascomycota).

            Verrucariaceae are a family of mostly crustose lichenized ascomycetes colonizing various habitats ranging from marine and fresh water to arid environments. Phylogenetic relationships among members of the Verrucariaceae are mostly unknown and the current morphology-based classification has never been confronted to molecular data. A multilocus phylogeny (nuLSU, nuSSU and RPB1) was reconstructed for 83 taxa representing all main genera of this family to provide a molecular phylogenetic framework necessary to assess the current morphology-based classification. Four main well-supported monophyletic groups were recovered, one of which contains seven robust monophyletic subgroups. Most genera, as traditionally delimited, were not monophyletic. A few taxonomic changes are proposed here to reconcile the morphology-based classification with the molecular phylogeny (Endocarpon diffractellum comb. nov., Heteroplacidium fusculum comb. nov., and Bagliettoa marmorea comb. nov.). Ancestral state reconstructions show that the most recent common ancestor of the Verrucariaceae was most likely crustose with a weakly differentiated upper cortex, simple ascospores, and hymenium free of algae. As shown in this study, the use of symplesiomorphic traits to define Verrucaria, the largest and type genus for the Verrucariaceae, as well as the non monophyly of the genera Polyblastia, Staurothele and Thelidium, explain most of the discrepancies between the current classification based on morphological similarity and a classification using monophyly as a grouping criterion.
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              Sequence insertions and ITS data provide congruent information on Roccella canariensis and R. tuberculata (Arthoniales, Euascomycetes) phylogeny.

              Four Roccella species, R. canariensis, R. fimbriata, R. montagnei, and R. tuberculata, were found to possess sequence insertions in up to four locations in the first half of the SSU rDNA. Insertions from one of these positions have been classified as group I introns, while the others may represent degenerative forms of group I introns or messenger RNA introns. Two of the insertion-containing taxa, R. canariensis and R. tuberculata, differ only in their dispersal strategy: R. canariensis is sexual, producing only fruiting bodies and R. tuberculata is sterile, producing only vegetative propagules, i.e., soredia. Because insertions occurred in specimens of both taxa, they were used to examine the phylogenetic relationships between and within the two species. The sequence insertions from each of the four positions were aligned and cladistically analyzed separately. Internal transcribed spacers (ITS) were additionally sequenced to study the phylogeny of all R. canariensis and R. tuberculata specimens. Three other Roccella species (R. babingtonii, R. fimbriata, and R. montagnei) and Dirina catalinariae were used as outgroups in this parsimony analysis. Sequence insertions were found to be potentially useful in phylogenetic studies, although due to the sequence dissimilarity, homology relations were difficult to establish above the species level and in some cases even within the species. The phylogenies obtained from the insertion matrices were totally consistent with the ITS data and the insertions were concluded to have been inherited. When the insertion and ITS data were combined for total evidence, R. canariensis and R. tuberculata did not form distinct lineages in the phylogenetic tree, but appeared mixed in well-supported groups containing both sorediate and fertile specimens. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                MycoKeys
                MycoKeys
                11
                urn:lsid:arphahub.com:pub:C004A564-9D6A-5F9F-B058-6A3815DFE9C3
                MycoKeys
                Pensoft Publishers
                1314-4057
                1314-4049
                2020
                02 September 2020
                : 72
                : 43-92
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Biodiversity Centre, Finnish Environment Institute, Latokartanonkaari 11, 00790 Helsinki, Finland Finnish Environment Institute Helsinki Finland
                [2 ] Botanical Museum, Finnish Museum of Natural History, P.O. Box 7, FI-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland University of Helsinki Helsinki Finland
                Author notes
                Corresponding author: Juha Pykälä ( juha.pykala@ 123456ymparisto.fi )

                Academic editor: Cecile Gueidan

                Article
                56223
                10.3897/mycokeys.72.56223
                7481264
                Juha Pykälä, Annina Kantelinen, Leena Myllys

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Categories
                Research Article
                Lichenized Fungi
                Taxonomy
                Europe

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