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      Extracorporeal shockwave therapy in musculoskeletal disorders

      , 1

      Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research

      BioMed Central

      Extracorporeal shockwave therapy, Musculoskeletal disorders

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          Abstract

          The sources of shockwave generation include electrohydraulic, electromagnetic and piezoelectric principles. Electrohydraulic shockwaves are high-energy acoustic waves generated under water explosion with high voltage electrode. Shockwave in urology (lithotripsy) is primarily used to disintegrate urolithiasis, whereas shockwave in orthopedics (orthotripsy) is not used to disintegrate tissues, rather to induce tissue repair and regeneration. The application of extracorporeal shockwave therapy (ESWT) in musculoskeletal disorders has been around for more than a decade and is primarily used in the treatment of sports related over-use tendinopathies such as proximal plantar fasciitis of the heel, lateral epicondylitis of the elbow, calcific or non-calcific tendonitis of the shoulder and patellar tendinopathy etc. The success rate ranged from 65% to 91%, and the complications were low and negligible. ESWT is also utilized in the treatment of non-union of long bone fracture, avascular necrosis of femoral head, chronic diabetic and non-diabetic ulcers and ischemic heart disease. The vast majority of the published papers showed positive and beneficial effects. FDA (USA) first approved ESWT for the treatment of proximal plantar fasciitis in 2000 and lateral epicondylitis in 2002. ESWT is a novel non-invasive therapeutic modality without surgery or surgical risks, and the clinical application of ESWT steadily increases over the years. This article reviews the current status of ESWT in musculoskeletal disorders.

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          Most cited references 124

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          Nontraumatic osteonecrosis of the femoral head: ten years later.

          The etiology of osteonecrosis of the hip may have a genetic basis. The interaction between certain risk factors and a genetic predisposition may determine whether this disease will develop in a particular individual. The rationale for use of joint-sparing procedures in the treatment of this disease is based on radiographic measurements and findings with other imaging modalities. Early diagnosis and intervention prior to collapse of the femoral head is key to a successful outcome of joint-preserving procedures. The results of joint-preserving procedures are less satisfactory than the results of total hip arthroplasty for femoral heads that have already collapsed. New pharmacological measures as well as the use of growth and differentiation factors for the prevention and treatment of this disease may eventually alter our treatment approach, but it is necessary to await results of clinical research with long-term follow-up of these patients.
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            Shock wave therapy induces neovascularization at the tendon-bone junction. A study in rabbits.

            Despite the success in clinical application, the exact mechanism of shock wave therapy remains unknown. We hypothesized that shock wave therapy induces the ingrowth of neovascularization and improves blood supply to the tissues. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of shock wave therapy on neovascularization at the tendon-bone junction. Fifty New Zealand white rabbits with body weight ranging from 2.5 to 3.5 kg were used in this study. The right limb (the study side) received shock wave therapy to the Achilles tendon near the insertion to bone. The left limb (the control side) received no shock wave therapy. Biopsies of the tendon-bone junction were performed in 0, 1, 4, 8 and 12 weeks. The number of neo-vessels was examined microscopically with hematoxylin-eosin stain. Neovascularization was confirmed by the angiogenic markers including vessel endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) expressions and endothelial cell proliferation determined by proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) expression examined microscopically with immunohistochemical stains. The results showed that shock wave therapy produced a significantly higher number of neo-vessels and angiogenesis-related markers including eNOS, VEGF and PCNA than the control without shock wave treatment. The eNOS and VEGF began to rise in as early as one week and remained high for 8 weeks, then declined at 12 weeks; whereas the increases of PCNA and neo-vessels began at 4 weeks and persisted for 12 weeks. In conclusion, shock wave therapy induces the ingrowth of neovascularization associated with early release of angiogenesis-related markers at the Achilles tendon-bone junction in rabbits. The neovascularization may play a role to improve blood supply and tissue regeneration at the tendon-bone junction.
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              Mechanisms of impulsive pressure generation and damage pit formation by bubble collapse

               Y Tomita,  A Shima (1986)
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                J Orthop Surg Res
                J Orthop Surg Res
                Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research
                BioMed Central
                1749-799X
                2012
                20 March 2012
                : 7
                : 11
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Section of Sports Medicine, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, 123 Ta-Pei Road. Niao Sung District, Kaohsiung City 833, Taiwan
                Article
                1749-799X-7-11
                10.1186/1749-799X-7-11
                3342893
                22433113
                Copyright ©2012 Wang; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Categories
                Review

                Surgery

                musculoskeletal disorders, extracorporeal shockwave therapy

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