Histamine administered intraperitoneally increased, in a dose-dependent manner, AVP, OXT and PRL levels in plasma of rats, whereas α-MSH levels were not affected. Levels of AVP in plasma after histamine 20.0 mg/kg treatment were approximately 100-fold higher than those of controls, while OXT and PRL levels were approximately 7-fold higher after this treatment. CSF content of AVP, OXT, PRL and α-MSH was not influenced by histamine, indicating that a stimulated release of hormones from the pituitary into the blood is not accompanied by a concomitant increase of secretion of these hormones into the CSF. Convulsions induced by pentylenetetrazol were accompanied by a temporary increase in AVP levels and by strongly and consistently elevated OXT levels in plasma. PRL and α-MSH plasma levels were affected in a biphasic manner. A convulsion type 1 induced elevated PRL levels and diminished α-MSH levels, while a convulsion type 2 had no effect on plasma PRL concentration, but increased the concentration of α-MSH. Only the level of OXT in CSF was increased after a pentylenetetrazol-induced convulsion type 1. The present data suggest that histamine affects the release of AVP, while pentylenetetrazol might act more specifically on the OXT-releasing system. Furthermore, a possible relationship between the pentylenetetrazol-induced increase of OXT levels in the CSF and amnesia is suggested.