To evaluate the effects of gender and isometric handgrip exercise on left ventricular diastolic function in normal individuals, atrial and rapid filling fraction were investigated using M-mode echocardiography in 35 postmenopausal women and 31 age-matched men. There were no significant differences in heart rate, mean blood pressure, atrial filling fraction, and rapid filling fraction at rest between women and men. When the amount of change in hemodynamic variable during exercise was compared, there were no significant differences in heart rate and mean blood pressure between women and men. But the increase in atrial filling fraction and the decrease in rapid filling fraction were significantly larger in women than in men. These data suggest that left ventricular diastolic function is restricted in postmenopausal women, and left atrial booster pump action is mobilized when afterload is increased during isometric handgrip exercise.