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Ganoderma neo-japonicum Imazeki revisited: Domestication study and antioxidant properties of its basidiocarps and mycelia

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      Mushroom cultivation benefits humankind as it deliberately encourages wild mushrooms to be commercially propagated while recycling agricultural wastes. Ganoderma neo-japonicum is a rare polypore mushroom found growing on decaying Schizostachyum brachycladium (a tropical bamboo) clumps in Malaysia. The Malaysian indigenous tribes including the Temuans and Temiars use the basidiocarps of G. neo-japonicum to treat various ailments including diabetes. In this study, the domestication of G. neo-japonicum in artificial logs of different agricultural residues was investigated. Sawdust promoted the mycelia spawn colonisation in the shortest period of 38 ± 0.5 days. However, only sawdust and bamboo dust supported the primodia formation. Complex medium supported mycelium growth in submerged cultures and 27.11 ± 0.43 g/L of mycelia was obtained after 2 weeks of cultivation at 28 °C and 200 rpm. Antioxidant potential in mushroom may be influenced by different cultivation and extraction methods. The different extracts from the wild and cultivated basidiocarps as well as mycelia were then tested for their antioxidant properties. Aqueous and ethanol extracts of mycelia and basidiocarps tested had varying levels of antioxidant activities. To conclude, domestication of wild G. neo-japonicum using agroresidues may ensure a continuous supply of G. neo-japonicum for its medicinal use while ensuring the conservation of this rare species.

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      Antioxidant activity of dietary polyphenols as determined by a modified ferric reducing/antioxidant power assay.

      Most nonenzymatic antioxidant activity (scavenging of free radicals, inhibition of lipid peroxidation, etc.) is mediated by redox reactions. The antioxidant (AO) activity of polyphenols (PPs), as ferric-reducing power, was determined for the first time using a modified FRAP (ferric reducing/antioxidant power) assay. Reaction was followed for 30 min, and both Fe(II) standards and samples were dissolved in the same solvent to allow comparison. Selected representative PPs included flavonoids (quercetin, rutin, and catechin), resveratrol, tannic acid, and phenolic acids (gallic, caffeic, and ferulic). Carotenoids (beta-carotene and zeaxanthine), ascorbic acid, Trolox, and BHA were included for comparison. Equivalent concentration 1 (EC(1)), as the concentration of AO with a reducing effect equivalent to 1 mmol/L Fe(II), was used to compare AO efficiency. PPs had lower EC(1) values, and therefore higher reducing power, than ascorbic acid and Trolox. Tannic acid and quercetin had the highest AO capacity followed by gallic and caffeic acids. Resveratrol showed the lowest reducing effect. Carotenoids had no ferric reducing ability. Polyphenol's AO efficiency seemed to depend on the extent of hydroxylation and conjugation.
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        Antioxidant activity of indigenous edible mushrooms.

        The current study was undertaken to measure the antioxidant potential from water and methanolic extracts of fruiting bodies of 23 species of mushrooms naturally grown in different geographic locations of India. The antioxidant ability of each species was analyzed for the total antioxidative status, employing multimechanistic antioxidative assays such as inhibition of lipid peroxidation, determination of reducing power, and free radical scavenging ability, in addition to determination of total phenolics and identification of phenolic acids by HPLC analysis, because the phenolics are known to contribute largely to antioxidant potential. The antioxidant potential of these varieties of mushrooms was determined by summing the antioxidative activity (AOA) of each variety by varied antioxidant assays followed by determining the relative percent of AOA defined as the "antioxidant index" (AI). On the basis of the AI, the mushroom species were graded as very high, high, moderate, and low. Termitomyces heimii was identified as the best variety, which showed 100% AI with 37 mg of phenolics/g of sample, 418 units of reducing power ability (RPA)/g, and an IC50 of approximately 1.1 mg (dry weight)/mL, free radical scavenging activity (FRS) in the water extract followed by 11.2 mg of phenolics/g, 275 units of RPA/g, and an IC50 of approximately 2.7 mg (dry weight)/mL of FRS in the methanolic extract. Following T. heimii, Termitomyces mummiformis exhibited an AI of 86% within the "very high" group. Potent inhibitions of lipid peroxidation of approximately 100 and 69% was also observed in T. heimii and T. mummiformis, respectively. Water extracts ranged from 34 to 49% and methanolic extracts varied from 20 to 32% on dry weight of mushroom fruiting body. Total phenolic compounds were higher in the water extracts (2-37 mg/g) than in methanolic extract (0.7-11.2 mg/g). The AOA measured in the water extract was better than that from the methanolic extract. HPLC analysis of phenolic acids in the two mushroom species, namely, T. heimii and T. mummiformis, displaying maximum AOA potential indicated a preponderance of tannic acid, gallic acid, protocatacheuic acid, and gentisic acid. Studies thus provide the precise antioxidant status of 23 indigenous species of mushrooms, which can serve as a useful database for the selection of mushrooms for the function of preparation of mushroom-based nutraceutics.
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          Radical scavenger and antihepatotoxic activity of Ganoderma formosanum, Ganoderma lucidum and Ganoderma neo-japonicum.

          The free radical scavenging and antihepatotoxic activity from Ganoderma lucidum, Ganoderma formosanum and Ganoderma neo-japonicum were studied. Treatment with the water extract of Ganoderma lucidum, Ganoderma formosanum and Ganoderma neo-japonicum caused a marked decrease in the CCl4-induced toxicity in rat liver, made evident by their effect on the levels of glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT) and lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) in the serum. The scavenging potency of the water extracts of the crude drugs was evaluated in terms of their ability to reduce the peaks of spin adducts using electron spin resonance (ESR) spin-trapping techniques. The results indicated that Ganoderma formosanum showed the greatest antihepatotoxic activity and the greatest free radical scavenging activity.

            Author and article information

            [1 ]Mushroom Research Centre, University of Malaya , 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
            [2 ]Institute of Biological Science, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya , 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
            [3 ]Department of Biomedical Science, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya , 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
            [4 ]Centre of Excellence for Learning and Teaching, UCSI University , Jalan Menara Gading, Taman Connaught, 56000 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
            Author notes
            Sci Rep
            Sci Rep
            Scientific Reports
            Nature Publishing Group
            27 July 2015
            : 5
            Copyright © 2015, Macmillan Publishers Limited

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