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Flow Diversion for the Treatment of MCA Bifurcation Aneurysms—A Single Centre Experience

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      Abstract

      Background

      Intracranial aneurysms located at the bifurcation of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) can often be challenging for the neurointerventionalist. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of flow diverting stents (FDS) in the treatment of these aneurysms.

      Materials and methods

      We retrospectively reviewed our prospectively maintained database to collect information for all patients with unruptured saccular bifurcation MCA aneurysms treated with FDS between January 2010 and January 2016. In addition to demographic data, we recorded the location, aneurysm characteristics, previous treatments, number and type of FDS, complications, and clinical and angiographic follow-up.

      Results

      Our search identified 13 patients (7 males) with an average age of 61.7 years (47–74 years). All patients had a single bifurcation aneurysm of the MCA, and none of the aneurysms were acutely ruptured. The average fundus size of the saccular aneurysms was 3 mm (range 1.5–10 mm). Follow-up studies were available for 12 patients. Based on the most recent follow-up angiograms, six aneurysms (50%) were totally occluded; five aneurysms (41.7%) showed only a small remnant; and one aneurysm (8.3%) remained unchanged. One patient suffered from an ischemic stroke with resultant permanent hemiparesis (mRS 3). In another case, there was an in-stent thrombosis during the intervention, which resolved upon intra-arterial infusion of Eptifibatide (mRS 0). There were no intra-operative vessel or aneurysm ruptures and no mortalities. Angiography of the covered MCA branches showed no change in the caliber or flow of the vessel in six (50%), a reduction in caliber in five (41.7%), and a complete occlusion in one (8.3%). All caliber changes and occlusions of the vessels were asymptomatic.

      Conclusion

      In our series, 91.7% of treated MCA bifurcation aneurysms were either completely occluded or showed only a small remnant with a good safety profile. Flow diversion of MCA bifurcation aneurysms should be considered as an alternative treatment strategy when microsurgical clipping or alternative endovascular treatment options are not feasible.

      Related collections

      Most cited references 42

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      Endovascular treatment of intracranial aneurysms with flow diverters: a meta-analysis.

       H Cloft,  H Murad,  D Kallmes (2013)
      Flow diverters are important tools in the treatment of intracranial aneurysms. However, their impact on aneurysmal occlusion rates, morbidity, mortality, and complication rates is not fully examined. We conducted a systematic review of the literature searching multiple databases for reports on the treatment of intracranial aneurysms with flow-diverter devices. Random effects meta-analysis was used to pool outcomes of aneurysmal occlusion rates at 6 months, and procedure-related morbidity, mortality, and complications across studies. A total of 29 studies were included in this analysis, including 1451 patients with 1654 aneurysms. Aneurysmal complete occlusion rate was 76% (95% confidence interval [CI], 70%-81%). Procedure-related morbidity and mortality were 5% (95% CI, 4%-7%) and 4% (95% CI, 3%-6%), respectively. The rate of postoperative subarachnoid hemorrhage was 3% (95% CI, 2%-4%). Intraparenchymal hemorrhage rate was 3% (95% CI, 2%-4%). Perforator infarction rate was 3% (95% CI, 1%-5%), with significantly lower odds of perforator infarction among patients with anterior circulation aneurysms compared with those with posterior circulation aneurysms (odds ratio, 0.01; 95% CI, 0.00-0.08; P<0.0001). Ischemic stroke rate was 6% (95% CI, 4%-9%), with significantly lower odds of perforator infarction among patients with anterior circulation aneurysms compared with those with posterior circulation aneurysms (odds ratio, 0.15; 95% CI, 0.08-0.27; P<0.0001). This meta-analysis suggests that treatment of intracranial aneurysms with flow-diverter devices is feasible and effective with high complete occlusion rates. However, the risk of procedure-related morbidity and mortality is not negligible. Patients with posterior circulation aneurysms are at higher risk of ischemic stroke, particularly perforator infarction. These findings should be considered when considering the best therapeutic option for intracranial aneurysms.
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        International Subarachnoid Aneurysm Trial (ISAT) of neurosurgical clipping versus endovascular coiling in 2143 patients with ruptured intracranial aneurysms: a randomised trial

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          The pipeline embolization device for the intracranial treatment of aneurysms trial.

          Endoluminal reconstruction with flow diverting devices represents a novel constructive technique for the treatment of cerebral aneurysms. We present the results of the first prospective multicenter trial of a flow-diverting construct for the treatment of intracranial aneurysms. Patients with unruptured aneurysms that were wide-necked (> 4 mm), had unfavorable dome/neck ratios (<1.5), or had failed previous therapy were enrolled in the PITA trial between January and May 2007 at 4 (3 European and 1 South American) centers. Aneurysms were treated with the PED with or without adjunctive coil embolization. All patients underwent clinical evaluation at 30 and 180 days and conventional angiography 180 days after treatment. Angiographic results were adjudicated by an experienced neuroradiologist at a nonparticipating site. Thirty-one patients with 31 intracranial aneurysms (6 men; 42-76 years of age; average age, 54.6 years) were treated during the study period. Twenty-eight aneurysms arose from the ICA (5 cavernous, 15 parophthalmic, 4 superior hypophyseal, and 4 posterior communicating segments), 1 from the MCA, 1 from the vertebral artery, and 1 from the vertebrobasilar junction. Mean aneurysm size was 11.5 mm, and mean neck size was 5.8 mm. Twelve (38.7%) aneurysms had failed (or recurred after) a previous endovascular treatment. PED placement was technically successful in 30 of 31 patients (96.8%). Most aneurysms were treated with either 1 (n = 18) or 2 (n = 11) PEDs. Fifteen aneurysms (48.4%) were treated with a PED alone, while 16 were treated with both PED and embolization coils. Two patients experienced major periprocedural stroke. Follow-up angiography demonstrated complete aneurysm occlusion in 28 (93.3%) of the 30 patients who underwent angiographic follow-up. No significant in-construct stenosis (≥ 50%) was identified at follow-up angiography. Intracranial aneurysm treatment with the PED is technically feasible and can be achieved with a safety profile analogous to that reported for stent-supported coil embolization. PED treatment elicited a very high rate (93%) of complete angiographic occlusion at 6 months in a population of the most challenging anatomic subtypes of cerebral aneurysms.
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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            1Neuroradiologic Clinic, Klinikum Stuttgart , Stuttgart, Germany
            2Neurologic Clinic, Klinikum Stuttgart , Stuttgart, Germany
            3Neurosurgical Clinic, Klinikum Stuttgart , Stuttgart, Germany
            4Medizinische Fakultät der Universität Duisburg-Essen , Essen, Germany
            Author notes

            Edited by: Afshin A. Divani, University of Minnesota, USA

            Reviewed by: Ricky Chow, Boston Scientific, USA; Eugene Lin, St. Vincent Mercy Medical Center, USA

            *Correspondence: Pervinder Bhogal, bhogalweb@ 123456aol.com

            Specialty section: This article was submitted to Endovascular and Interventional Neurology, a section of the journal Frontiers in Neurology

            Contributors
            Journal
            Front Neurol
            Front Neurol
            Front. Neurol.
            Frontiers in Neurology
            Frontiers Media S.A.
            1664-2295
            02 February 2017
            2017
            : 8
            5288345
            10.3389/fneur.2017.00020
            Copyright © 2017 Bhogal, AlMatter, Bäzner, Ganslandt, Henkes and Aguilar Pérez.

            This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

            Counts
            Figures: 2, Tables: 1, Equations: 0, References: 53, Pages: 8, Words: 6196
            Categories
            Neuroscience
            Original Research

            Neurology

            p64, flow diverter, stents, mca bifurcation, mca aneurysm, pipeline embolization device

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