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      Mouse Models of Experimental Autoimmune Uveitis

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          Abstract

          The mouse model of experimental autoimmune uveitis, induced by immunization of mice with the retinal protein IRBP, was developed in our laboratory 20 years ago and published in 1988. Since that time it has been adopted by many investigators and has given rise to many studies that helped elucidate genetic influences, dissect the basic mechanisms of pathogenesis and test novel immunotherapeutic paradigms. The current overview will summarize the salient features of the experimental autoimmune uveitis model and discuss its mechanisms.

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          Most cited references 14

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          Defective antioxidative activity of small dense HDL3 particles in type 2 diabetes: relationship to elevated oxidative stress and hyperglycaemia.

          Elevated oxidative stress, hyperglycaemia, and dyslipidaemia involving low levels of HDL particles are key proatherogenic factors in type 2 diabetes mellitus. We examined the relationship of oxidative stress, and the degree of glycaemia and triglyceridaemia, to antioxidative function of HDL particle subspecies in type 2 diabetes. Five HDL subfractions (2b, 2a, 3a, 3b, 3c) were isolated by density gradient ultracentrifugation from well-controlled type 2 diabetic subjects (n=20) and normolipidaemic, non-diabetic controls (n=10). Specific antioxidative activity (capacity to protect LDL from oxidation on a unit particle mass or on a particle number basis), chemical composition and enzymatic activities were measured in each subfraction. Systemic oxidative stress was assessed as plasma levels of 8-isoprostanes. Specific antioxidative activity of small dense HDL3b and 3c particles in diabetic patients was significantly diminished (up to -47%, on a particle mass or particle number basis) as compared with controls. Plasma 8-isoprostanes were markedly elevated (2.9-fold) in diabetic patients, were negatively correlated with both specific antioxidative activity of HDL3 subfractions and plasma HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) levels, and were positively correlated with glycaemia and triglyceridaemia. Paraoxonase 1 activity was consistently lower in diabetic HDL subfractions and was positively correlated with HDL3 antioxidative activity. The altered chemical composition of diabetic HDL3 subfractions (core cholesteryl ester depletion, triglyceride enrichment) was equally correlated with diminished antioxidative activity. Antioxidative activity of small dense HDL is deficient in type 2 diabetes, is intimately linked to oxidative stress, glycaemia and hypertriglyceridaemia and primarily reflects abnormal intrinsic physicochemical properties of HDL particles.
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            High pre-beta1 HDL concentrations and low lecithin: cholesterol acyltransferase activities are strong positive risk markers for ischemic heart disease and independent of HDL-cholesterol.

            We hypothesized that patients with high HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) and ischemic heart disease (IHD) may have dysfunctional HDL or unrecognized nonconventional risk factors. Individuals with IHD (Copenhagen University Hospital) and either high HDL-C (n = 53; women >or=735 mg/L; men >or=619 mg/L) or low HDL-C (n = 42; women
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              Niacin, but not gemfibrozil, selectively increases LP-AI, a cardioprotective subfraction of HDL, in patients with low HDL cholesterol.

              Evidence indicates that the high density lipoprotein (HDL) subfraction containing apolipoprotein A-I without apolipoprotein AII (LP-AI) is more antiatherogenic than HDL particles containing apolipoprotein A-I and apolipoprotein A-II (LP-AI+AII). This study examined the effect of extended-release niacin (niacin-ER) and gemfibrozil on LP-AI and LP-AI+AII particles in patients with low levels of HDL cholesterol (HDL-C). Mechanisms by which these agents modulate HDL particles were investigated by in vitro studies using human hepatoblastoma (Hep G2) cells. A total of 139 patients with low HDL-C (
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                ORE
                Ophthalmic Res
                10.1159/issn.0030-3747
                Ophthalmic Research
                S. Karger AG
                978-3-8055-8584-2
                978-3-8055-8585-9
                0030-3747
                1423-0259
                2008
                April 2008
                18 April 2008
                : 40
                : 3-4
                : 169-174
                Affiliations
                Laboratory of Immunology, NEI, NIH, Bethesda, Md., USA
                Article
                119871 PMC2735820 Ophthalmic Res 2008;40:169–174
                10.1159/000119871
                PMC2735820
                18421234
                © 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 1, References: 23, Pages: 6
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