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      Oxidant Preconditioning Protects Human Proximal Tubular Cells against Lethal Oxidant Injury via p38 MAPK and Heme Oxygenase-1

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          Ischemic preconditioning protects the kidney from subsequent ischemic injury but the signal transduction pathways involved are unknown. Human proximal tubular (HK-2) cells were protected from injury with 2.5 m M H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub> by preconditioning with a single 15-min exposure to 500 µ M H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub> followed by 16 h of recovery (oxidant preconditioning). To identify the signaling pathways involved in oxidant preconditioning, we utilized inhibitors of several signaling intermediates (MAPK/ERK kinase I, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), protein kinase C and tyrosine kinase). A rapid but transient increase in p38 MAPK was observed following oxidant preconditioning and an inhibitor of p38 MAPK (SB203580) abolished the protection provided by oxidant preconditioning. Oxidant preconditioning was also associated with heat shock protein-27 phosphorylation (by p38 MAPK) and an increased synthesis of heme oxygenease-1 (HO-1). Stimulation or inhibition of HO-1 with hemin or Zn(II) protoporphyrin IX, respectively, mimicked or abolished oxidant preconditioning-mediated cytoprotection. Inhibitors of new protein synthesis (cycloheximide) and gene transcription (actinomycin D) also blocked the cytoprotection by oxidant preconditioning. We conclude that oxidant preconditioning protects HK-2 cells against more severe oxidant injury via activation of signaling pathways that include p38 MAPK and increased synthesis of HO-1.

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          Mechanisms of Epithelial Cell–Cell Adhesion and Cell Compaction Revealed by High-resolution Tracking of E-Cadherin– Green Fluorescent Protein

          Cadherin-mediated adhesion initiates cell reorganization into tissues, but the mechanisms and dynamics of such adhesion are poorly understood. Using time-lapse imaging and photobleach recovery analyses of a fully functional E-cadherin/GFP fusion protein, we define three sequential stages in cell–cell adhesion and provide evidence for mechanisms involving E-cadherin and the actin cytoskeleton in transitions between these stages. In the first stage, membrane contacts between two cells initiate coalescence of a highly mobile, diffuse pool of cell surface E-cadherin into immobile punctate aggregates along contacting membranes. These E-cadherin aggregates are spatially coincident with membrane attachment sites for actin filaments branching off from circumferential actin cables that circumscribe each cell. In the second stage, circumferential actin cables near cell–cell contact sites separate, and the resulting two ends of the cable swing outwards to the perimeter of the contact. Concomitantly, subsets of E-cadherin puncta are also swept to the margins of the contact where they coalesce into large E-cadherin plaques. This reorganization results in the formation of a circumferential actin cable that circumscribes both cells, and is embedded into each E-cadherin plaque at the contact margin. At this stage, the two cells achieve maximum contact, a process referred to as compaction. These changes in E-cadherin and actin distributions are repeated when additional single cells adhere to large groups of cells. The third stage of adhesion occurs as additional cells are added to groups of >3 cells; circumferential actin cables linked to E-cadherin plaques on adjacent cells appear to constrict in a purse-string action, resulting in the further coalescence of individual plaques into the vertices of multicell contacts. The reorganization of E-cadherin and actin results in the condensation of cells into colonies. We propose a model to explain how, through strengthening and compaction, E-cadherin and actin cables coordinate to remodel initial cell–cell contacts to the final condensation of cells into colonies.
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            Oxidative Stress, Antioxidant Defenses, and Damage Removal, Repair, and Replacement Systems

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              Reactive oxygen species released from mitochondria during brief hypoxia induce preconditioning in cardiomyocytes.

              Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been proposed to participate in the induction of cardiac preconditioning. However, their source and mechanism of induction are unclear. We tested whether brief hypoxia induces preconditioning by augmenting mitochondrial generation of ROS in chick cardiomyocytes. Cells were preconditioned with 10 min of hypoxia, followed by 1 h of simulated ischemia and 3 h of reperfusion. Preconditioning decreased cell death from 47 +/- 3% to 14 +/- 2%. Return of contraction was observed in 3/3 preconditioned versus 0/6 non-preconditioned experiments. During induction, ROS oxidation of the probe dichlorofluorescin (sensitive to H2O2) increased approximately 2.5-fold. As a substitute for hypoxia, the addition of H2O2 (15 micromol/liter) during normoxia also induced preconditioning-like protection. Conversely, the ROS signal during hypoxia was attenuated with the thiol reductant 2-mercaptopropionyl glycine, the cytosolic Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase inhibitor diethyldithiocarbamic acid, and the anion channel inhibitor 4,4'-diisothiocyanato-stilbene-2,2'-disulfonate, all of which also abrogated protection. ROS generation during hypoxia was attenuated by myxothiazol, but not by diphenyleneiodonium or the nitric-oxide synthase inhibitor L-nitroarginine. We conclude that hypoxia increases mitochondrial superoxide generation which initiates preconditioning protection. Furthermore, mitochondrial anion channels and cytosolic dismutation to H2O2 may be important steps for oxidant induction of hypoxic preconditioning.

                Author and article information

                Am J Nephrol
                American Journal of Nephrology
                S. Karger AG
                October 2003
                08 September 2003
                : 23
                : 5
                : 324-333
                Department of Anesthesiology, College of Physicians and Surgeons of Columbia University, New York, N.Y., USA
                72914 Am J Nephrol 2003;23:324–333
                © 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Page count
                Figures: 8, Tables: 1, References: 36, Pages: 10
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                Original Article: Laboratory Investigation


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