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      The Immunomodulatory and Anti-Inflammatory Role of Polyphenols

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          Abstract

          This review offers a systematic understanding about how polyphenols target multiple inflammatory components and lead to anti-inflammatory mechanisms. It provides a clear understanding of the molecular mechanisms of action of phenolic compounds. Polyphenols regulate immunity by interfering with immune cell regulation, proinflammatory cytokines’ synthesis, and gene expression. They inactivate NF-κB (nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells) and modulate mitogen-activated protein Kinase (MAPk) and arachidonic acids pathways. Polyphenolic compounds inhibit phosphatidylinositide 3-kinases/protein kinase B (PI3K/AkT), inhibitor of kappa kinase/c-Jun amino-terminal kinases (IKK/JNK), mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) which is a protein complex that controls protein synthesis, and JAK/STAT. They can suppress toll-like receptor (TLR) and pro-inflammatory genes’ expression. Their antioxidant activity and ability to inhibit enzymes involved in the production of eicosanoids contribute as well to their anti-inflammation properties. They inhibit certain enzymes involved in reactive oxygen species ROS production like xanthine oxidase and NADPH oxidase (NOX) while they upregulate other endogenous antioxidant enzymes like superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, and glutathione (GSH) peroxidase (Px). Furthermore, they inhibit phospholipase A2 (PLA2), cyclooxygenase (COX) and lipoxygenase (LOX) leading to a reduction in the production of prostaglandins (PGs) and leukotrienes (LTs) and inflammation antagonism. The effects of these biologically active compounds on the immune system are associated with extended health benefits for different chronic inflammatory diseases. Studies of plant extracts and compounds show that polyphenols can play a beneficial role in the prevention and the progress of chronic diseases related to inflammation such as diabetes, obesity, neurodegeneration, cancers, and cardiovascular diseases, among other conditions.

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          Most cited references 227

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          The effects of plant flavonoids on mammalian cells: implications for inflammation, heart disease, and cancer.

          Flavonoids are nearly ubiquitous in plants and are recognized as the pigments responsible for the colors of leaves, especially in autumn. They are rich in seeds, citrus fruits, olive oil, tea, and red wine. They are low molecular weight compounds composed of a three-ring structure with various substitutions. This basic structure is shared by tocopherols (vitamin E). Flavonoids can be subdivided according to the presence of an oxy group at position 4, a double bond between carbon atoms 2 and 3, or a hydroxyl group in position 3 of the C (middle) ring. These characteristics appear to also be required for best activity, especially antioxidant and antiproliferative, in the systems studied. The particular hydroxylation pattern of the B ring of the flavonoles increases their activities, especially in inhibition of mast cell secretion. Certain plants and spices containing flavonoids have been used for thousands of years in traditional Eastern medicine. In spite of the voluminous literature available, however, Western medicine has not yet used flavonoids therapeutically, even though their safety record is exceptional. Suggestions are made where such possibilities may be worth pursuing.
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            NRF2 and cancer: the good, the bad and the importance of context.

            Many studies of chemopreventive drugs have suggested that their beneficial effects on suppression of carcinogenesis and many other chronic diseases are mediated through activation of the transcription factor NFE2-related factor 2 (NRF2). More recently, genetic analyses of human tumours have indicated that NRF2 may conversely be oncogenic and cause resistance to chemotherapy. It is therefore controversial whether the activation, or alternatively the inhibition, of NRF2 is a useful strategy for the prevention or treatment of cancer. This Opinion article aims to rationalize these conflicting perspectives by critiquing the context dependence of NRF2 functions and the experimental methods behind these conflicting data.
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              Protective and pathogenic functions of macrophage subsets.

              Macrophages are strategically located throughout the body tissues, where they ingest and process foreign materials, dead cells and debris and recruit additional macrophages in response to inflammatory signals. They are highly heterogeneous cells that can rapidly change their function in response to local microenvironmental signals. In this Review, we discuss the four stages of orderly inflammation mediated by macrophages: recruitment to tissues; differentiation and activation in situ; conversion to suppressive cells; and restoration of tissue homeostasis. We also discuss the protective and pathogenic functions of the various macrophage subsets in antimicrobial defence, antitumour immune responses, metabolism and obesity, allergy and asthma, tumorigenesis, autoimmunity, atherosclerosis, fibrosis and wound healing. Finally, we briefly discuss the characterization of macrophage heterogeneity in humans.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Nutrients
                Nutrients
                nutrients
                Nutrients
                MDPI
                2072-6643
                02 November 2018
                November 2018
                : 10
                : 11
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Cellular and Molecular Medicine Department, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON K1H8L1, Canada; nyahf074@ 123456uottawa.ca (N.Y.); nalsa068@ 123456uottawa.ca (N.A.); mjamb055@ 123456uottawa.ca (M.J.)
                [2 ]School of Nutrition, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON K1H8L1, Canada
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: Chantal.matar@ 123456uottawa.ca ; Tel.: +1-613-562-5406
                Article
                nutrients-10-01618
                10.3390/nu10111618
                6266803
                30400131
                © 2018 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

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