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      Stimulatory effects of the degradation products from Mg-Ca-Sr alloy on the osteogenesis through regulating ERK signaling pathway

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          Abstract

          The influence of Mg-1Ca-xwt.% Sr (x = 0.2, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0) alloys on the osteogenic differentiation and mineralization of pre-osteoblast MC3T3-E1 were studied through typical differentiation markers, such as intracellular alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, extracellular collagen secretion and calcium nodule formation. It was shown that Mg-1Ca alloys with different content of Sr promoted cell viability and enhanced the differentiation and mineralization levels of osteoblasts, and Mg-1Ca-2.0Sr alloy had the most remarkable and significant effect among all. To further investigate the underlying mechanisms, RT-PCR and Western Blotting assays were taken to analyze the mRNA expression level of osteogenesis-related genes and intracellular signaling pathways involved in osteogenesis, respectively. RT-PCR results showed that Mg-1Ca-2.0Sr alloy significantly up-regulated the expressions of the transcription factors of Runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2) and Osterix (OSX), Integrin subunits, as well as alkaline phosphatase (ALP), Bone sialoprotein (BSP), Collagen I (COL I), Osteocalcin (OCN) and Osteopontin (OPN). Western Blotting results suggested that Mg-1Ca-2.0Sr alloy rapidly induced extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activation but showed no obvious effects on c-Jun N terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 kinase of MAPK. Taken together, our results demonstrated that Mg-1Ca-2.0Sr alloy had excellent biocompatibility and osteogenesis via the ERK pathway and is expected to be promising as orthopedic implants and bone repair materials.

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          Most cited references 39

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          TGF-β and BMP Signaling in Osteoblast Differentiation and Bone Formation

          Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β)/bone morphogenic protein (BMP) signaling is involved in a vast majority of cellular processes and is fundamentally important throughout life. TGF-β/BMPs have widely recognized roles in bone formation during mammalian development and exhibit versatile regulatory functions in the body. Signaling transduction by TGF-β/BMPs is specifically through both canonical Smad-dependent pathways (TGF-β/BMP ligands, receptors and Smads) and non-canonical Smad-independent signaling pathway (e.g. p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway, MAPK). Following TGF-β/BMP induction, both the Smad and p38 MAPK pathways converge at the Runx2 gene to control mesenchymal precursor cell differentiation. The coordinated activity of Runx2 and TGF-β/BMP-activated Smads is critical for formation of the skeleton. Recent advances in molecular and genetic studies using gene targeting in mice enable a better understanding of TGF-β/BMP signaling in bone and in the signaling networks underlying osteoblast differentiation and bone formation. This review summarizes the recent advances in our understanding of TGF-β/BMP signaling in bone from studies of genetic mouse models and human diseases caused by the disruption of TGF-β/BMP signaling. This review also highlights the different modes of cross-talk between TGF-β/BMP signaling and the signaling pathways of MAPK, Wnt, Hedgehog, Notch, and FGF in osteoblast differentiation and bone formation.
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            The history of biodegradable magnesium implants: a review.

             Frank Witte (2010)
            Today, more than 200years after the first production of metallic magnesium by Sir Humphry Davy in 1808, biodegradable magnesium-based metal implants are currently breaking the paradigm in biomaterial science to develop only highly corrosion resistant metals. This groundbreaking approach to temporary metallic implants is one of the latest developments in biomaterials science that is being rediscovered. It is a challenging topic, and several secrets still remain that might revolutionize various biomedical implants currently in clinical use. Magnesium alloys were investigated as implant materials long ago. A very early clinical report was given in 1878 by the physician Edward C. Huse. He used magnesium wires as ligature for bleeding vessels. Magnesium alloys for clinical use were explored during the last two centuries mainly by surgeons with various clinical backgrounds, such as cardiovascular, musculoskeletal and general surgery. Nearly all patients benefited from the treatment with magnesium implants. Although most patients experienced subcutaneous gas cavities caused by rapid implant corrosion, most patients had no pain and almost no infections were observed during the postoperative follow-up. This review critically summarizes the in vitro and in vivo knowledge and experience that has been reported on the use of magnesium and its alloys to advance the field of biodegradable metals. Copyright (c) 2010 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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              The development of binary Mg-Ca alloys for use as biodegradable materials within bone.

              Binary Mg-Ca alloys with various Ca contents were fabricated under different working conditions. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis and optical microscopy observations showed that Mg-xCa (x=1-3 wt%) alloys were composed of two phases, alpha (Mg) and Mg2Ca. The results of tensile tests and in vitro corrosion tests indicated that the mechanical properties could be adjusted by controlling the Ca content and processing treatment. The yield strength (YS), ultimate tensile strength (UTS) and elongation decreased with increasing Ca content. The UTS and elongation of as-cast Mg-1Ca alloy (71.38+/-3.01 MPa and 1.87+/-0.14%) were largely improved after hot rolling (166.7+/-3.01 MPa and 3+/-0.78%) and hot extrusion (239.63+/-7.21 MPa and 10.63+/-0.64%). The in vitro corrosion test in simulated body fluid (SBF) indicated that the microstructure and working history of Mg-xCa alloys strongly affected their corrosion behaviors. An increasing content of Mg2Ca phase led to a higher corrosion rate whereas hot rolling and hot extrusion could reduce it. The cytotoxicity evaluation using L-929 cells revealed that Mg-1Ca alloy did not induce toxicity to cells, and the viability of cells for Mg-1Ca alloy extraction medium was better than that of control. Moreover, Mg-1Ca alloy pins, with commercial pure Ti pins as control, were implanted into the left and right rabbit femoral shafts, respectively, and observed for 1, 2 and 3 months. High activity of osteoblast and osteocytes were observed around the Mg-1Ca alloy pins as shown by hematoxylin and eosin stained tissue sections. Radiographic examination revealed that the Mg-1Ca alloy pins gradually degraded in vivo within 90 days and the newly formed bone was clearly seen at month 3. Both the in vitro and in vivo corrosion suggested that a mixture of Mg(OH)2 and hydroxyapatite formed on the surface of Mg-1Ca alloy with the extension of immersion/implantation time. In addition, no significant difference (p>0.05) of serum magnesium was detected at different degradation stages. All these results revealed that Mg-1Ca alloy had the acceptable biocompatibility as a new kind of biodegradable implant material. Based on the above results, a solid alloy/liquid solution interface model was also proposed to interpret the biocorrosion process and the associated hydroxyapatite mineralization.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Sci Rep
                Sci Rep
                Scientific Reports
                Nature Publishing Group
                2045-2322
                01 September 2016
                2016
                : 6
                Affiliations
                [1 ]State Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior of Materials, Xi’an Jiaotong University , Xi’an 710049, China
                [2 ]Department of Orthopedics, Nanjing General Hospital of Nanjing Military Command , 305 zhongshandong road, Nanjing 210002, China
                [3 ]Center for Biomedical Materials and Tissue Engineering, Academy for Advanced Interdisciplinary Studies, Peking University , Beijing 100871, China
                [4 ]Department of Orthopedics, Guangdong Key Lab of Orthopaedic Technology and Implant Materials, Guangzhou General Hospital of Guangzhou military command , 111 Liuhua Road, Guangzhou 510010, China
                [5 ]Department of Materials Science and Engineering, College of Engineering, Peking University , Beijing 100871, China
                Author notes
                [*]

                These authors contributed equally to this work.

                Article
                srep32323
                10.1038/srep32323
                5007487
                27580744
                Copyright © 2016, The Author(s)

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in the credit line; if the material is not included under the Creative Commons license, users will need to obtain permission from the license holder to reproduce the material. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

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