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      The Efficacy and Safety of Anlotinib Alone and in Combination with Other Drugs in Advanced Lung Cancer: A Retrospective Cohort Study

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          Abstract

          Objective

          Lung cancer is a disease associated with high levels of morbidity and mortality, with approximately 2.1 million new cases every year. Anlotinib is a new small-molecule multitarget tyrosine kinase inhibitor independently developed in China that can inhibit the formation of tumor blood vessels and has a therapeutic effect on various cancers. However, the application of anlotinib in lung cancer needs further investigation.

          Methods

          We collected the progress notes of 43 patients with advanced lung cancer treated at the Oncology Department of Guangzhou Chest Hospital from March 2019 to March 2021. Additionally, we assessed the differences between drug combination therapy and single-drug therapy among patients treated with anlotinib.

          Results

          Patients in both the anlotinib-combination and anlotinib-monotherapy groups experienced remission; however, the overall disease control rate in the anlotinib-combination group was higher than that in the anlotinib-monotherapy group. Reexamination via computed tomography showed that patients in the anlotinib-combination group had better recovery than those in the anlotinib-monotherapy group. Although the overall incidence of adverse reactions in the anlotinib-combination group was higher than that in the monotherapy group, most of the adverse reactions were I–II levels and improved after symptomatic treatment.

          Conclusion

          Anlotinib combined with other therapies is better than anlotinib alone for the management of patients with advanced lung cancer.

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          Most cited references26

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          Global Cancer Statistics 2018: GLOBOCAN Estimates of Incidence and Mortality Worldwide for 36 Cancers in 185 Countries

          This article provides a status report on the global burden of cancer worldwide using the GLOBOCAN 2018 estimates of cancer incidence and mortality produced by the International Agency for Research on Cancer, with a focus on geographic variability across 20 world regions. There will be an estimated 18.1 million new cancer cases (17.0 million excluding nonmelanoma skin cancer) and 9.6 million cancer deaths (9.5 million excluding nonmelanoma skin cancer) in 2018. In both sexes combined, lung cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer (11.6% of the total cases) and the leading cause of cancer death (18.4% of the total cancer deaths), closely followed by female breast cancer (11.6%), prostate cancer (7.1%), and colorectal cancer (6.1%) for incidence and colorectal cancer (9.2%), stomach cancer (8.2%), and liver cancer (8.2%) for mortality. Lung cancer is the most frequent cancer and the leading cause of cancer death among males, followed by prostate and colorectal cancer (for incidence) and liver and stomach cancer (for mortality). Among females, breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer and the leading cause of cancer death, followed by colorectal and lung cancer (for incidence), and vice versa (for mortality); cervical cancer ranks fourth for both incidence and mortality. The most frequently diagnosed cancer and the leading cause of cancer death, however, substantially vary across countries and within each country depending on the degree of economic development and associated social and life style factors. It is noteworthy that high-quality cancer registry data, the basis for planning and implementing evidence-based cancer control programs, are not available in most low- and middle-income countries. The Global Initiative for Cancer Registry Development is an international partnership that supports better estimation, as well as the collection and use of local data, to prioritize and evaluate national cancer control efforts. CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians 2018;0:1-31. © 2018 American Cancer Society.
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            Cancer statistics, 2015.

            Each year the American Cancer Society estimates the numbers of new cancer cases and deaths that will occur in the United States in the current year and compiles the most recent data on cancer incidence, mortality, and survival. Incidence data were collected by the National Cancer Institute (Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results [SEER] Program), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (National Program of Cancer Registries), and the North American Association of Central Cancer Registries. Mortality data were collected by the National Center for Health Statistics. A total of 1,658,370 new cancer cases and 589,430 cancer deaths are projected to occur in the United States in 2015. During the most recent 5 years for which there are data (2007-2011), delay-adjusted cancer incidence rates (13 oldest SEER registries) declined by 1.8% per year in men and were stable in women, while cancer death rates nationwide decreased by 1.8% per year in men and by 1.4% per year in women. The overall cancer death rate decreased from 215.1 (per 100,000 population) in 1991 to 168.7 in 2011, a total relative decline of 22%. However, the magnitude of the decline varied by state, and was generally lowest in the South (∼15%) and highest in the Northeast (≥20%). For example, there were declines of 25% to 30% in Maryland, New Jersey, Massachusetts, New York, and Delaware, which collectively averted 29,000 cancer deaths in 2011 as a result of this progress. Further gains can be accelerated by applying existing cancer control knowledge across all segments of the population. © 2015 American Cancer Society.
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              First-line crizotinib versus chemotherapy in ALK-positive lung cancer.

              The efficacy of the ALK inhibitor crizotinib as compared with standard chemotherapy as first-line treatment for advanced ALK-positive non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is unknown. We conducted an open-label, phase 3 trial comparing crizotinib with chemotherapy in 343 patients with advanced ALK-positive nonsquamous NSCLC who had received no previous systemic treatment for advanced disease. Patients were randomly assigned to receive oral crizotinib at a dose of 250 mg twice daily or to receive intravenous chemotherapy (pemetrexed, 500 mg per square meter of body-surface area, plus either cisplatin, 75 mg per square meter, or carboplatin, target area under the curve of 5 to 6 mg per milliliter per minute) every 3 weeks for up to six cycles. Crossover to crizotinib treatment after disease progression was permitted for patients receiving chemotherapy. The primary end point was progression-free survival as assessed by independent radiologic review. Progression-free survival was significantly longer with crizotinib than with chemotherapy (median, 10.9 months vs. 7.0 months; hazard ratio for progression or death with crizotinib, 0.45; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.35 to 0.60; P<0.001). Objective response rates were 74% and 45%, respectively (P<0.001). Median overall survival was not reached in either group (hazard ratio for death with crizotinib, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.54 to 1.26; P=0.36); the probability of 1-year survival was 84% with crizotinib and 79% with chemotherapy. The most common adverse events with crizotinib were vision disorders, diarrhea, nausea, and edema, and the most common events with chemotherapy were nausea, fatigue, vomiting, and decreased appetite. As compared with chemotherapy, crizotinib was associated with greater reduction in lung cancer symptoms and greater improvement in quality of life. Crizotinib was superior to standard first-line pemetrexed-plus-platinum chemotherapy in patients with previously untreated advanced ALK-positive NSCLC. (Funded by Pfizer; PROFILE 1014 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01154140.).
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Comput Math Methods Med
                Comput Math Methods Med
                cmmm
                Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine
                Hindawi
                1748-670X
                1748-6718
                2022
                25 February 2022
                : 2022
                : 1475871
                Affiliations
                Department of Oncology, Guangzhou Chest Hospital, Guangzhou, China
                Author notes

                Academic Editor: Deepika Koundal

                Author information
                https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7505-5522
                Article
                10.1155/2022/1475871
                8896944
                35251294
                5fc21519-a4e0-4802-bcef-a8fc0e3cb96c
                Copyright © 2022 Lei Li et al.

                This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                History
                : 17 December 2021
                : 10 January 2022
                : 26 January 2022
                Funding
                Funded by: mechanism of interstitial therapy of anlotinib combined with Atezolizumab in lung cancer
                Award ID: 20191A010030
                Categories
                Research Article

                Applied mathematics
                Applied mathematics

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