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      RADAR-Base: Open Source Mobile Health Platform for Collecting, Monitoring, and Analyzing Data Using Sensors, Wearables, and Mobile Devices

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          Abstract

          Background

          With a wide range of use cases in both research and clinical domains, collecting continuous mobile health (mHealth) streaming data from multiple sources in a secure, highly scalable, and extensible platform is of high interest to the open source mHealth community. The European Union Innovative Medicines Initiative Remote Assessment of Disease and Relapse-Central Nervous System (RADAR-CNS) program is an exemplary project with the requirements to support the collection of high-resolution data at scale; as such, the Remote Assessment of Disease and Relapse (RADAR)-base platform is designed to meet these needs and additionally facilitate a new generation of mHealth projects in this nascent field.

          Objective

          Wide-bandwidth networks, smartphone penetrance, and wearable sensors offer new possibilities for collecting near-real-time high-resolution datasets from large numbers of participants. The aim of this study was to build a platform that would cater for large-scale data collection for remote monitoring initiatives. Key criteria are around scalability, extensibility, security, and privacy.

          Methods

          RADAR-base is developed as a modular application; the backend is built on a backbone of the highly successful Confluent/Apache Kafka framework for streaming data. To facilitate scaling and ease of deployment, we use Docker containers to package the components of the platform. RADAR-base provides 2 main mobile apps for data collection, a Passive App and an Active App. Other third-Party Apps and sensors are easily integrated into the platform. Management user interfaces to support data collection and enrolment are also provided.

          Results

          General principles of the platform components and design of RADAR-base are presented here, with examples of the types of data currently being collected from devices used in RADAR-CNS projects: Multiple Sclerosis, Epilepsy, and Depression cohorts.

          Conclusions

          RADAR-base is a fully functional, remote data collection platform built around Confluent/Apache Kafka and provides off-the-shelf components for projects interested in collecting mHealth datasets at scale.

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          Most cited references 8

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          AWARE: Mobile Context Instrumentation Framework

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            Apple's ResearchKit: smart data collection for the smartphone era?

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              A Platform to Build Mobile Health Apps: The Personal Health Intervention Toolkit (PHIT)

              Personal Health Intervention Toolkit (PHIT) is an advanced cross-platform software framework targeted at personal self-help research on mobile devices. Following the subjective and objective measurement, assessment, and plan methodology for health assessment and intervention recommendations, the PHIT platform lets researchers quickly build mobile health research Android and iOS apps. They can (1) create complex data-collection instruments using a simple extensible markup language (XML) schema; (2) use Bluetooth wireless sensors; (3) create targeted self-help interventions based on collected data via XML-coded logic; (4) facilitate cross-study reuse from the library of existing instruments and interventions such as stress, anxiety, sleep quality, and substance abuse; and (5) monitor longitudinal intervention studies via daily upload to a Web-based dashboard portal. For physiological data, Bluetooth sensors collect real-time data with on-device processing. For example, using the BinarHeartSensor, the PHIT platform processes the heart rate data into heart rate variability measures, and plots these data as time-series waveforms. Subjective data instruments are user data-entry screens, comprising a series of forms with validation and processing logic. The PHIT instrument library consists of over 70 reusable instruments for various domains including cognitive, environmental, psychiatric, psychosocial, and substance abuse. Many are standardized instruments, such as the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test, Patient Health Questionnaire-8, and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Checklist. Autonomous instruments such as battery and global positioning system location support continuous background data collection. All data are acquired using a schedule appropriate to the app’s deployment. The PHIT intelligent virtual advisor (iVA) is an expert system logic layer, which analyzes the data in real time on the device. This data analysis results in a tailored app of interventions and other data-collection instruments. For example, if a user anxiety score exceeds a threshold, the iVA might add a meditation intervention to the task list in order to teach the user how to relax, and schedule a reassessment using the anxiety instrument 2 weeks later to re-evaluate. If the anxiety score exceeds a higher threshold, then an advisory to seek professional help would be displayed. Using the easy-to-use PHIT scripting language, the researcher can program new instruments, the iVA, and interventions to their domain-specific needs. The iVA, instruments, and interventions are defined via XML files, which facilities rapid app development and deployment. The PHIT Web-based dashboard portal provides the researcher access to all the uploaded data. After a secure login, the data can be filtered by criteria such as study, protocol, domain, and user. Data can also be exported into a comma-delimited file for further processing. The PHIT framework has proven to be an extensible, reconfigurable technology that facilitates mobile data collection and health intervention research. Additional plans include instrument development in other domains, additional health sensors, and a text messaging notification system.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                JMIR Mhealth Uhealth
                JMIR Mhealth Uhealth
                JMU
                JMIR mHealth and uHealth
                JMIR Publications (Toronto, Canada )
                2291-5222
                August 2019
                01 August 2019
                : 7
                : 8
                Affiliations
                [1 ] The Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology & Neuroscience (IoPPN) Department of Biostatistics & Health Informatics King's College London London United Kingdom
                [2 ] Vibrent Health Fairfax, VA United States
                [3 ] Janssen Pharmaceutica NV, Turnhoutseweg Beerse Belgium
                [4 ] Epilepsy Center, Department of Neurosurgery, University of Hospital Freiburg Freiburg Germany
                [5 ] The Hyve MJ Utrecht Netherlands
                [6 ] Institute of Health Informatics, University College London London United Kingdom
                [7 ] The RADAR-CNS Consortium London United Kingdom
                Author notes
                Corresponding Author: Amos Folarin amos.folarin@ 123456kcl.ac.uk
                Article
                v7i8e11734
                10.2196/11734
                6694732
                31373275
                ©Yatharth Ranjan, Zulqarnain Rashid, Callum Stewart, Pauline Conde, Mark Begale, Denny Verbeeck, Sebastian Boettcher, The Hyve, Richard Dobson, Amos Folarin, The RADAR-CNS Consortium. Originally published in JMIR Mhealth and Uhealth (http://mhealth.jmir.org), 01.08.2019.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work, first published in JMIR mhealth and uhealth, is properly cited. The complete bibliographic information, a link to the original publication on http://mhealth.jmir.org/.as well as this copyright and license information must be included.

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