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      Comparing online versus laboratory measures of speech perception in older children and adolescents

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          Abstract

          Given the increasing prevalence of online data collection, it is important to know how behavioral data obtained online compare to samples collected in the laboratory. This study compares online and in-person measurement of speech perception in older children and adolescents. Speech perception is important for assessment and treatment planning in speech-language pathology; we focus on the American English /ɹ/ sound because of its frequency as a clinical target. Two speech perception tasks were adapted for web presentation using Gorilla: identification of items along a synthetic continuum from rake to wake, and category goodness judgment of English /ɹ/ sounds in words produced by various talkers with and without speech sound disorder. Fifty typical children aged 9–15 completed these tasks online using a standard headset. These data were compared to a previous sample of 98 typical children aged 9–15 who completed the same tasks in the lab setting. For the identification task, participants exhibited smaller boundary widths (suggestive of more acute perception) in the in-person setting relative to the online setting. For the category goodness judgment task, there was no statistically significant effect of modality. The correlation between scores on the two tasks was significant in the online setting but not in the in-person setting, but the difference in correlation strength was not statistically significant. Overall, our findings agree with previous research in suggesting that online and in-person data collection do not yield identical results, but the two contexts tend to support the same broad conclusions. In addition, these results suggest that online data collection can make it easier for researchers connect with a more representative sample of participants.

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          Detecting outliers: Do not use standard deviation around the mean, use absolute deviation around the median

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            Gorilla in our midst: An online behavioral experiment builder

            Behavioral researchers are increasingly conducting their studies online, to gain access to large and diverse samples that would be difficult to get in a laboratory environment. However, there are technical access barriers to building experiments online, and web browsers can present problems for consistent timing—an important issue with reaction-time-sensitive measures. For example, to ensure accuracy and test–retest reliability in presentation and response recording, experimenters need a working knowledge of programming languages such as JavaScript. We review some of the previous and current tools for online behavioral research, as well as how well they address the issues of usability and timing. We then present the Gorilla Experiment Builder (gorilla.sc), a fully tooled experiment authoring and deployment platform, designed to resolve many timing issues and make reliable online experimentation open and accessible to a wider range of technical abilities. To demonstrate the platform’s aptitude for accessible, reliable, and scalable research, we administered a task with a range of participant groups (primary school children and adults), settings (without supervision, at home, and under supervision, in both schools and public engagement events), equipment (participant’s own computer, computer supplied by the researcher), and connection types (personal internet connection, mobile phone 3G/4G). We used a simplified flanker task taken from the attentional network task (Rueda, Posner, & Rothbart, 2004). We replicated the “conflict network” effect in all these populations, demonstrating the platform’s capability to run reaction-time-sensitive experiments. Unresolved limitations of running experiments online are then discussed, along with potential solutions and some future features of the platform. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (10.3758/s13428-019-01237-x) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
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              R: a language and environment for statistical computing

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: ConceptualizationRole: Funding acquisitionRole: Project administrationRole: Writing – original draftRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: ConceptualizationRole: Funding acquisitionRole: Project administrationRole: Writing – original draftRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: InvestigationRole: Project administrationRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: Data curationRole: MethodologyRole: VisualizationRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: ConceptualizationRole: Funding acquisitionRole: Project administrationRole: Writing – original draftRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: Editor
                Journal
                PLoS One
                PLoS One
                plos
                PLOS ONE
                Public Library of Science (San Francisco, CA USA )
                1932-6203
                7 February 2024
                2024
                : 19
                : 2
                : e0297530
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Department of Communicative Sciences and Disorders, New York University, New York, New York, United States of America
                [2 ] Department of Communication Sciences and Disorders, Syracuse University, Syracuse, New York, New York, United States of America
                [3 ] Department of Communication Sciences and Disorders, Montclair State University, Montclair, New Jersey, United States of America
                [4 ] Department of Applied Statistics, Social Sciences, and Humanities, New York University, New York, New York, United States of America
                Universita degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca, ITALY
                Author notes

                Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

                Author information
                https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2230-2897
                Article
                PONE-D-23-23646
                10.1371/journal.pone.0297530
                10849252
                38324559
                5fc7af69-a428-42dd-9fcd-5f08e1298bef
                © 2024 McAllister et al

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                History
                : 7 August 2023
                : 5 January 2024
                Page count
                Figures: 5, Tables: 0, Pages: 20
                Funding
                Funded by: funder-id http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/100000055, National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders;
                Award ID: R01DC017476
                Award Recipient :
                Funded by: funder-id http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/100000055, National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders;
                Award ID: R15DC019775
                Award Recipient :
                TM - R01DC017476, National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders, https://www.nidcd.nih.gov. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. ERH - R15DC019775, National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders, https://www.nidcd.nih.gov. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.
                Categories
                Research Article
                Social Sciences
                Linguistics
                Speech
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Neuroscience
                Cognitive Science
                Cognitive Psychology
                Perception
                Sensory Perception
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Psychology
                Cognitive Psychology
                Perception
                Sensory Perception
                Social Sciences
                Psychology
                Cognitive Psychology
                Perception
                Sensory Perception
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Neuroscience
                Sensory Perception
                Engineering and Technology
                Equipment
                Audio Equipment
                Headphones
                Computer and Information Sciences
                Computer Networks
                Internet
                Medicine and Health Sciences
                Epidemiology
                Pandemics
                Medicine and Health Sciences
                Medical Conditions
                Infectious Diseases
                Viral Diseases
                Covid 19
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Neuroscience
                Cognitive Science
                Cognitive Psychology
                Language
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Psychology
                Cognitive Psychology
                Language
                Social Sciences
                Psychology
                Cognitive Psychology
                Language
                Computer and Information Sciences
                Software Engineering
                Computer Software
                Engineering and Technology
                Software Engineering
                Computer Software
                Custom metadata
                De-identified data and code to reproduce the analyses reported in this paper are freely available on the Open Science Framework at https://osf.io/3rn7m/, DOI 10.17605/OSF.IO/3RN7M.

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