Regulated proteolysis is essential for cell cycle progression in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. We show here that the ClpXP protease, responsible for the degradation of multiple bacterial proteins, is dynamically localized to specific cellular positions in Caulobacter where it degrades colocalized proteins. The CtrA cell cycle master regulator, that must be cleared from the Caulobacter cell to allow the initiation of chromosome replication, interacts with the ClpXP protease at the cell pole where it is degraded. We have identified a novel, conserved protein, RcdA, that forms a complex with CtrA and ClpX in the cell. RcdA is required for CtrA polar localization and degradation by ClpXP. The localization pattern of RcdA is coincident with and dependent upon ClpX localization. Thus, a dynamically localized ClpXP proteolysis complex in concert with a cytoplasmic factor provides temporal and spatial specificity to protein degradation during a bacterial cell cycle.