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      Third ventricular tuberculoma mimicking as a tumor: Report of a very rare case


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          Intracranial tuberculoma is a common neurosurgical problem in developing countries; however, intraventricular tuberculoma is a rare entity. Here, we report a rare case of third ventricular tuberculoma in a 21-year-old girl who presented with features of raised intracranial pressure. Radiological findings and management of third ventricular tuberculoma would be discussed and literature regarding such lesions will be reviewed.

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          Consensus statement. Global burden of tuberculosis: estimated incidence, prevalence, and mortality by country. WHO Global Surveillance and Monitoring Project.

          To estimate the risk and prevalence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) infection and tuberculosis (TB) incidence, prevalence, and mortality, including disease attributable to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), for 212 countries in 1997. A panel of 86 TB experts and epidemiologists from more than 40 countries was chosen by the World Health Organization (WHO), with final agreement being reached between country experts and WHO staff. Incidence of TB and mortality in each country was determined by (1) case notification to the WHO, (2) annual risk of infection data from tuberculin surveys, and (3) data on prevalence of smear-positive pulmonary disease from prevalence surveys. Estimates derived from relatively poor data were strongly influenced by panel member opinion. Objective estimates were derived from high-quality data collected recently by approved procedures. Agreement was reached by (1) participants reviewing methods and data and making provisional estimates in closed workshops held at WHO's 6 regional offices, (2) principal authors refining estimates using standard methods and all available data, and (3) country experts reviewing and adjusting these estimates and reaching final agreement with WHO staff. In 1997, new cases of TB totaled an estimated 7.96 million (range, 6.3 million-11.1 million), including 3.52 million (2.8 million-4.9 million) cases (44%) of infectious pulmonary disease (smear-positive), and there were 16.2 million (12.1 million-22.5 million) existing cases of disease. An estimated 1.87 million (1.4 million-2.8 million) people died of TB and the global case fatality rate was 23% but exceeded 50% in some African countries with high HIV rates. Global prevalence of MTB infection was 32% (1.86 billion people). Eighty percent of all incident TB cases were found in 22 countries, with more than half the cases occurring in 5 Southeast Asian countries. Nine of 10 countries with the highest incidence rates per capita were in Africa. Prevalence of MTB/HIV coinfection worldwide was 0.18% and 640000 incident TB cases (8%) had HIV infection. The global burden of tuberculosis remains enormous, mainly because of poor control in Southeast Asia, sub-Saharan Africa, and eastern Europe, and because of high rates of M tuberculosis and HIV coinfection in some African countries.
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            Intracranial tuberculomas in patients with tuberculous meningitis: predictors and prognostic significance.

            Intracranial tuberculomas are commonly observed neuroimaging abnormalities in tuberculous meningitis (TBM). to evaluate the predictors and prognostic significance of tuberculomas in patients with TBM. In a retrospective follow-up study, contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging was performed at study inclusion and after 9 months of follow-up. Univariate analysis and multivariate analysis were used to identify predictive factors for tuberculoma. Prognosis (death and severe disability) was assessed using the modified Rankin scale. At inclusion, 43 of 110 patients had cerebral tuberculomas. Seven patients developed paradoxical tuberculomas. Predictors of tuberculomas were raised cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) protein (>3 g/l) and meningeal enhancement. Multivariate analysis did not show any significant predictors. During follow-up, the only significant predictor of paradoxical development of tuberculomas was raised CSF protein (>3 g/l). After 9 months of follow-up, 32 patients had died or had severe disability. Survival analysis revealed that patients with tuberculomas and those without tuberculomas had a similar prognosis. Tuberculomas occurred in approximately 39% of the patients with TBM. Significant predictors were meningeal enhancement and raised CSF protein. TBM patients with or without tuberculomas had a similar prognosis.
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              Retrospective study of 23 pathologically proven cases of central nervous system tuberculomas.

              Extrapulmonary manifestations of tuberculosis involving the central nervous system (CNS) due to haematogenous spread are not a rare entity. It presents as meningitis or tuberculoma. Tuberculoma is a granulomatous inflammatory process mimicking a neoplasm radiologically, so usually a biopsy is performed. Our study consisted of 23 pathologically proven cases of tuberculomas between 1988 and 2003. Patients were discussed clinically, radiologically and histologically. Headache, fever, weight loss and weakness are the most common clinical manifestations. Our patient's ages vary from 3 to 67 years with a mean of 31.8 years. Ninety-five percent of patients had bad social, economic and nutritional conditions. None of them were infected by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). All patients had similar contrast-enhancing lesions radiologically. The majority of tuberculomas were located supratentorially. Only one patient presented two foci of (cerebral and cerebellar) tuberculomas. Nineteen tuberculomas were intracerebral; two were located in the cerebellum and one was intramedullary. Among those lesions, one cavernous sinus tuberculoma and one sellar tuberculoma were identified. Only two patients underwent stereotactic biopsy and 21 patients underwent surgical excision. Histopathologic examination revealed granulomatous inflammation with central caseous necrosis in all patients. Diagnosis of tuberculoma can be difficult, and in most of our cases, the clinical diagnosis was 'neoplasm'. For this reason, clinicians must always be aware of it and consider it in the differential diagnosis of central nervous system mass lesions.

                Author and article information

                Asian J Neurosurg
                Asian J Neurosurg
                Asian Journal of Neurosurgery
                Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd (India )
                Jan-Mar 2017
                : 12
                : 1
                : 58-61
                [1]Department of Neurosurgery, Om Hospital, Chabahil, Kathmandu, Nepal
                Author notes
                Address for correspondence: Dr. Gopal R. Sharma, Department of Neurosurgery, Om Hospital, Chabahil, Kathmandu, Nepal. E-mail: gopal47@ 123456hotmail.com
                Copyright: © 2014 Asian Journal of Neurosurgery

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 License, which allows others to remix, tweak, and build upon the work non-commercially, as long as the author is credited and the new creations are licensed under the identical terms.

                Case Report

                intracranial tuberculomas,third ventricular tuberculoma,transcallosal transventricular excision


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