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      Hyponatremia in Community-Acquired Pneumonia

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          Background/Aim: Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a frequent cause for hospitalization and may result in a number of different renal and electrolyte complications. The purpose of this study was to describe the incidence of hyponatremia in CAP and to analyze risk factors for its occurrence. Methods: Records were reviewed for all 342 subjects who participated in the Community-Acquired Pneumonia Standardized Order Set study, a 2-year trial of supplemental treatment tools in hospital pneumonia treatment. Results: Hyponatremia (serum sodium concentration <136 mg/dl) was present at hospital admission in 27.9% of patients. The magnitude was generally mild, only 4.1% of patients had serum sodium <130 mEq/l. Patients with hyponatremia had greater initial heart rate (100.2 vs. 93.2 beats/min, p = 0.03), white blood cell count (15,100 vs. 12,100/µl, p < 0.0001) and pneumonia severity index class 4 or 5 (35.7 vs. 25.1% of patients, p = 0.05). Hyponatremia at admission was associated with greater risk for death and increased length of hospital stay. Hyponatremia developed during the hospitalization in 10.5% of subjects, with most cases being mild, only 2.6% of all patients having serum sodium decrease to <130 mEq/l. Patients developing hyponatremia were more likely to have end-stage renal disease and to have had initial intravenous fluids other than isotonic saline, but had similar severity of illness on admission to those without acquired hyponatremia. Conclusion: Hyponatremia is a common complication present at the time of admission for CAP. It is associated with more severe illness, increased mortality risk and extended hospital stays. Hyponatremia develops less frequently during the hospitalization and is unrelated to severity of illness on admission, but is an iatrogenic complication and thus initial treatment with isotonic saline may reduce the risk of this complication.

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          Epidemiology of community-acquired respiratory tract infections in adults

          Upper respiratory tract infections are the most common types of infectious diseases among adults. It is estimated that each adult in the United States experiences two to four respiratory infections annually. The morbidity of these infections is measured by an estimated 75 million physician visits per year, almost 150 million days lost from work, and more than $10 billion In costs for medical care. Serotypes of the rhinoviruses account for 20 to 30 percent of episodes of the common cold. However, the specific causes of most upper respiratory infections are undefined. Pneumonia remains an important cause of morbidity and mortality for nonhospitalized adults despite the widespread use of effective antimicrobial agents. There are no accurate figures on the number of episodes of pneumonia that occur each year in ambulatory patients. In younger adults, the atypical pneumonia syndrome Is the most common clinical presentation; Mycoplasma pneumoniae is the most frequently Identified causative agent. Other less common agents include Legionelia pneumophila, influenza viruses, adenoviruses, and Chiamydia. More than half a million adults are hospitalized each year with pneumonia. Persons older than 65 years of age have the highest rate of pneumonia admissions, 11.5 per 1,000 population. Pneumonia ranks as the sixth leading cause of death in the United States. The pathogens responsible for community-acquired pneumonlas are changing. Forty years ago, Streptococcus pneumoniae accounted for the majority of infections. Today, a broad array of community-acquired pathogens have been implicated as etiologic agents Including Leglonella species, gram-negative bacilli, Hemophilus influenzae, Staphylococcus aureus and nonbacterial pathogens. Given the diversity of pathogenic agents, it has become imperative for clinicians to establish a specific etiologic diagnosis before initiating therapy or to consider the diagnostic possibilities and treat with antimicrobial agents that are effective against the most likely pathogens.
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            The cost of treating community-acquired pneumonia

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              Fatal water intoxication.

               D Farrell (2003)

                Author and article information

                Am J Nephrol
                American Journal of Nephrology
                S. Karger AG
                April 2007
                13 March 2007
                : 27
                : 2
                : 184-190
                Divisions of Nephrology and Pulmonary Medicine, Winthrop-University Hospital, Mineola, N.Y., USA
                100866 Am J Nephrol 2007;27:184–190
                © 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 3, Tables: 3, References: 17, Pages: 7
                Original Report: Patient-Oriented, Translational Research


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