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      Rol del Estado en la investigación científica en salud y transparencia en la información Translated title: The role of the State in health-related scientific research and data transparency

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          Abstract

          La investigación en salud es una herramienta necesaria para el desarrollo de un país, la cual debe ser materializada en políticas públicas que repercutan sobre el bienestar de la población; por lo que es indudable la responsabilidad del Estado en su promoción, desarrollo y difusión, trabajando en forma conjunta con otros actores de la sociedad y del mundo académico a nivel nacional e internacional. En este manuscrito se revisa la normativa que establece el rol del Estado peruano sobre investigación en salud y transparencia en la información, el desarrollo que ha tenido en la gobernanza del sector, y los ejemplos más tangibles en que las investigaciones promovidas por el Ministerio de Salud a través del Instituto Nacional de Salud en colaboración con otras instituciones, han terminado en políticas públicas en beneficio de la población como el cambio de tratamiento de malaria y la vacunación universal contra la hepatitis viral B.

          Translated abstract

          Health-related research is a necessary tool for the development of every country, and this research must be materialized by means of public policies directed towards achieving welfare for the community as a whole; so undoubtedly there is a great responsibility for the state in terms of promoting, developing and spreading health-related research, jointly working with other components of society and the academic sector, both nationally and internationally. This article reviews the regulations that establish the role of the Peruvian state on health-related research and data transparency, the development of management strategies for this area, and the most tangible achievements showing that health-related research promoted by the Peruvian Ministry of health through the National Institute of Health led to the implementation of public policies favoring the whole population, such as changes in therapy for malaria and universal immunization against hepatitis B.

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          Most cited references 66

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          The process of changing national malaria treatment policy: lessons from country-level studies.

          Widespread resistance of Plasmodium falciparum parasites to commonly used antimalarials, such as chloroquine, has resulted in many endemic countries considering changing their malaria treatment policy. Identifying and understanding the key influences that affect decision-making, and factors that facilitate or undermine policy implementation, is critical for improving the policy process and guiding resource allocation during this process. A historical review of archival documents from Malaŵi and data obtained from in-depth policy studies in four countries (Tanzania, South Africa, Kenya and Peru) that have changed malaria treatment policy provides important lessons about decision-making, the policy cycle and complex policy environment, while specifically identifying strategies successfully employed to facilitate policy-making and implementation. Findings from these country-level studies indicate that the process of malaria drug policy review should be institutionalized in endemic countries and based on systematically collected data. Key stakeholders need to be identified early and engaged in the process, while improved communication is needed on all levels. Although malaria drug policy change is often perceived to be a daunting task, using these and other proven strategies should assist endemic countries to tackle this challenge in a systematic fashion that ensures the development and implementation of the rational malaria drug policy.
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            Drugs for neglected diseases: a failure of the market and a public health failure?

            Infectious diseases cause the suffering of hundreds of millions of people, especially in tropical and subtropical areas. Effective, affordable and easy-to-use medicines to fight these diseases are nearly absent. Although science and technology are sufficiently advanced to provide the necessary medicines, very few new drugs are being developed. However, drug discovery is not the major bottleneck. Today's R&D-based pharmaceutical industry is reluctant to invest in the development of drugs to treat the major diseases of the poor, because return on investment cannot be guaranteed. With national and international politics supporting a free market-based world order, financial opportunities rather than global health needs guide the direction of new drug development. Can we accept that the dearth of effective drugs for diseases that mainly affect the poor is simply the sad but inevitable consequence of a global market economy? Or is it a massive public health failure, and a failure to direct economic development for the benefit of society? An urgent reorientation of priorities in drug development and health policy is needed. The pharmaceutical industry must contribute to this effort, but national and international policies need to direct the global economy to address the true health needs of society. This requires political will, a strong commitment to prioritize health considerations over economic interests, and the enforcement of regulations and other mechanisms to stimulate essential drug development. New and creative strategies involving both the public and the private sector are needed to ensure that affordable medicines for today's neglected diseases are developed. Priority action areas include advocating an essential medicines R&D agenda, capacity-building in and technology transfer to developing countries, elaborating an adapted legal and regulatory framework, prioritizing funding for essential drug development and securing availability, accessibility, distribution and rational use of these drugs.
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              Knowledge for better health: a conceptual framework and foundation for health research systems

              Health research generates knowledge that can be utilized to improve health system performance and, ultimately, health and health equity. We propose a conceptual framework for health research systems (HRSs) that defines their boundaries, components, goals, and functions. The framework adopts a systems perspective towards HRSs and serves as a foundation for constructing a practical approach to describe and analyse HRSs. The analysis of HRSs should, in turn, provide a better understanding of how research contributes to gains in health and health equity. In this framework, the intrinsic goals of the HRS are the advancement of scientific knowledge and the utilization of knowledge to improve health and health equity. Its four principal functions are stewardship, financing, creating and sustaining resources, and producing and using research. The framework, as it is applied in consultation with countries, will provide countries and donor agencies with relevant inputs to policies and strategies for strengthening HRSs and using knowledge for better health.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: ND
                Journal
                rpmesp
                Revista Peruana de Medicina Experimental y Salud Pública
                Rev Peru Med Exp Salud Publica
                Instituto Nacional de Salud (Lima )
                1726-4634
                October 2006
                : 23
                : 4
                : 275-283
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Instituto Nacional de Salud Colombia
                [2 ] Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos Peru
                Article
                S1726-46342006000400008
                5fd65063-25a2-43c3-80c1-9c73edddc008
                Product
                Product Information: website
                Categories
                Health Policy & Services

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