Serum levels of the gonadal hormones inhibin A and inhibin B are undetectable or low in prepubertal girls, and rise during puberty. In girls with central precocious puberty (CPP) the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis is prematurely activated, if the girl is thereafter treated with GnRH agonists both gonadotropins and estradiol levels become suppressed. We therefore investigated serum levels of inhibin A and inhibin B in girls with CPP at diagnosis and during treatment in order to test the hypothesis that inhibin secretion would increase and decrease in parallel with the activation and suppression of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. Serum levels of inhibin A and inhibin B were significantly (p < 0.0005) elevated in 42 girls at diagnosis of CPP (inhibin A: 7 pg/ml (<7–139), inhibin B: 80 pg/ml (<20–294) (median, range)) compared to levels in age-matched healthy schoolgirls (inhibin A: all values <7 pg/ml, inhibin B: 21 pg/ml (<20–122) (median, range)), but were appropriate for Tanner stage. During treatment with GnRH agonist (intranasal buserelin and oral cyproterone acetate, treatment group 1, n = 23, or triptorelin depot injections, treatment group 2, n = 19) levels of both hormones fell significantly (p = 0.002). There was a significantly (p = 0.003) greater fall in inhibin B levels during treatment in group 2 compared to group 1, with inhibin B levels now lying below (group 2: <20 pg/ml (<20–68)) rather than within (group 1: 34.5 pg/ml (<20–93)) the age-appropriate range. It is concluded that levels of inhibin A and inhibin B are elevated and suppressed in concert with activation and suppression of the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis in girls with CPP, supporting the concept that ovarian inhibin secretion is dynamically regulated by gonadotropin stimulation.