We present an extension of the coarse-grained MARTINI model for proteins and apply this extension to amyloid- and elastin-like peptides. Atomistic simulations of tetrapeptides, octapeptides, and longer peptides in solution are used as a reference to parametrize a set of pseudodihedral potentials that describe the internal flexibility of MARTINI peptides. We assess the performance of the resulting model in reproducing various structural properties computed from atomistic trajectories of peptides in water. The addition of new dihedral angle potentials improves agreement with the contact maps computed from atomistic simulations significantly. We also address the question of which parameters derived from atomistic trajectories are transferable between different lengths of peptides. The modified coarse-grained model shows reasonable transferability of parameters for the amyloid- and elastin-like peptides. In addition, the improved coarse-grained model is also applied to investigate the self-assembly of β-sheet forming peptides on the microsecond time scale. The octapeptides SNNFGAIL and (GV) 4 are used to examine peptide aggregation in different environments, in water, and at the water–octane interface. At the interface, peptide adsorption occurs rapidly, and peptides spontaneously aggregate in favor of stretched conformers resembling β-strands.