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      Cell Death

      ,

      Cell

      Elsevier BV

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          Cleavage of BID by caspase 8 mediates the mitochondrial damage in the Fas pathway of apoptosis.

          We report here that BID, a BH3 domain-containing proapoptotic Bcl2 family member, is a specific proximal substrate of Casp8 in the Fas apoptotic signaling pathway. While full-length BID is localized in cytosol, truncated BID (tBID) translocates to mitochondria and thus transduces apoptotic signals from cytoplasmic membrane to mitochondria. tBID induces first the clustering of mitochondria around the nuclei and release of cytochrome c independent of caspase activity, and then the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, cell shrinkage, and nuclear condensation in a caspase-dependent fashion. Coexpression of BclxL inhibits all the apoptotic changes induced by tBID. Our results indicate that BID is a mediator of mitochondrial damage induced by Casp8.
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            Induction of TNF receptor I-mediated apoptosis via two sequential signaling complexes.

            Apoptosis induced by TNF-receptor I (TNFR1) is thought to proceed via recruitment of the adaptor FADD and caspase-8 to the receptor complex. TNFR1 signaling is also known to activate the transcription factor NF-kappa B and promote survival. The mechanism by which this decision between cell death and survival is arbitrated is not clear. We report that TNFR1-induced apoptosis involves two sequential signaling complexes. The initial plasma membrane bound complex (complex I) consists of TNFR1, the adaptor TRADD, the kinase RIP1, and TRAF2 and rapidly signals activation of NF-kappa B. In a second step, TRADD and RIP1 associate with FADD and caspase-8, forming a cytoplasmic complex (complex II). When NF-kappa B is activated by complex I, complex II harbors the caspase-8 inhibitor FLIP(L) and the cell survives. Thus, TNFR1-mediated-signal transduction includes a checkpoint, resulting in cell death (via complex II) in instances where the initial signal (via complex I, NF-kappa B) fails to be activated.
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              Identification and inhibition of the ICE/CED-3 protease necessary for mammalian apoptosis.

              The protease responsible for the cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase and necessary for apoptosis has been purified and characterized. This enzyme, named apopain, is composed of two subunits of relative molecular mass (M(r)) 17K and 12K that are derived from a common proenzyme identified as CPP32. This proenzyme is related to interleukin-1 beta-converting enzyme (ICE) and CED-3, the product of a gene required for programmed cell death in Caenorhabditis elegans. A potent peptide aldehyde inhibitor has been developed and shown to prevent apoptotic events in vitro, suggesting that apopain/CPP32 is important for the initiation of apoptotic cell death.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Cell
                Cell
                Elsevier BV
                00928674
                January 2004
                January 2004
                : 116
                : 2
                : 205-219
                Article
                10.1016/S0092-8674(04)00046-7
                © 2004

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