Shaimaa Ahmed 1 , Thirumala Govender 1 , Inamullah Khan 2 , Nisar ur Rehman 2 , Waqar Ali 2 , Syed Muhammad Hassan Shah 3 , Shahzeb Khan , 4 , Zahid Hussain 5 , Riaz Ullah , 6 , 7 , Mansour S Alsaid 6
05 February 2018
The challenges with current antimicrobial drug therapy and resistance remain a significant global health threat. Nanodrug delivery systems are playing a crucial role in overcoming these challenges and open new avenues for effective antimicrobial therapy. While fluticasone (FLU), a poorly water-soluble corticosteroid, has been reported to have potential antimicrobial activity, approaches to optimize its dissolution profile and antimicrobial activity are lacking in the literature. This study aimed to combine an experimental study with molecular modeling to design stable FLU nanopolymeric particles with enhanced dissolution rates and antimicrobial activity.
Six different polymers were used to prepare FLU nanopolymeric particles: hydroxyl propyl methylcellulose (HPMC), poly (vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP), poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA), ethyl cellulose (EC), Eudragit (EUD), and Pluronics ®. A low-energy method, nanoprecipitation, was used to prepare the polymeric nanoparticles.
The combination of HPMC-PVP and EUD-PVP was found most effective to produce stable FLU nanoparticles, with particle sizes of 250 nm ±2.0 and 280 nm ±4.2 and polydispersity indices of 0.15 nm ±0.01 and 0.25 nm ±0.03, respectively. The molecular modeling studies endorsed the same results, showing highest polymer drug binding free energies for HPMC-PVP-FLU (−35.22 kcal/mol ±0.79) and EUD-PVP-FLU (−25.17 kcal/mol ±1.12). In addition, it was observed that Ethocel ® favored a wrapping mechanism around the drug molecules rather than a linear conformation that was witnessed for other individual polymers. The stability studies conducted for 90 days demonstrated that HPMC-PVP-FLU nanoparticles stored at 2°C–8°C and 25°C were more stable. Crystallinity of the processed FLU nanoparticles was confirmed using differential scanning calorimetry, powder X-ray diffraction analysis and TEM. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) studies showed that there was no chemical interaction between the drug and chosen polymer system. The HPMC-PVP-FLU nanoparticles also showed enhanced dissolution rate ( P<0.05) compared to the unprocessed counterpart. The in vitro antibacterial studies showed that HPMC-PVP-FLU nanoparticles displayed superior effect against gram-positive bacteria compared to the unprocessed FLU and positive control.