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      Respiratory Condition of Family Farmers Exposed to Pesticides in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil


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          Pesticide exposure is a growing public health concern. Although Brazil is the world’s largest consumer of pesticides, only a few studies have addressed the health effects among farmers. This study aimed to evaluate whether pesticide exposure is associated with respiratory outcomes among rural workers and relatives in Brazil during the crop and off-seasons. Family farmers (82) were interviewed about occupational history and respiratory symptoms, and cholinesterase tests were conducted in the crop-season. Spirometry was performed during the crop and off-season. Respiratory outcomes were compared between seasons and multiple regressions analysis were conducted to search for associations with exposure indicators. Participants were occupationally and environmentally exposed to multiple pesticides from an early age. During the crop and off-season, respectively, they presented a prevalence of 40% and 30.7% for cough, 30.7% and 24% for nasal allergies, and 24% and 17.3% for chest tightness. Significant associations between spirometry impairments and exposure indicators were found both during the crop and off-season. These findings provide complementary evidence about the association of pesticide exposure with adverse respiratory effects among family farmers in Brazil. This situation requires special attention as it may increase the risk of pulmonary dysfunctions, and the morbidity and mortality burden associated with these diseases.

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          New reference values for forced spirometry in white adults in Brazil.

          To describe spirometric reference equations for healthy Brazilian adults who have never smoked and to compare the predicted values with those derived in 1992. Reference equations for spirometry were derived in 270 men and 373 women living in eight cities in Brazil. Ages ranged from 20 to 85 years in women and from 26 to 86 years in men. Spirometry examinations followed the recommendations of the Brazilian Thoracic Society. Lower limits were derived by the analysis of the fifth percentiles of the residuals. Forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), FEV1/FVC and FEV1/forced expiratory volume in six seconds (FEV6) were best fitted by linear regression. Flows were best fitted using log equations. For both genders, greater height resulted in lower values for FEV1/FVC, FEV1/FEV6 and flow/FVC ratios. The reference values for FEV1 and FVC in the present study were higher than those derived for Brazilian adults in 1992. New predicted values for forced spirometry were obtained in a sample of white Brazilians. The values are greater than those obtained in 1992, probably due to technical factors.
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            Pesticides: an update of human exposure and toxicity.

            Pesticides are a family of compounds which have brought many benefits to mankind in the agricultural, industrial, and health areas, but their toxicities in both humans and animals have always been a concern. Regardless of acute poisonings which are common for some classes of pesticides like organophosphoruses, the association of chronic and sub-lethal exposure to pesticides with a prevalence of some persistent diseases is going to be a phenomenon to which global attention has been attracted. In this review, incidence of various malignant, neurodegenerative, respiratory, reproductive, developmental, and metabolic diseases in relation to different routes of human exposure to pesticides such as occupational, environmental, residential, parental, maternal, and paternal has been systematically criticized in different categories of pesticide toxicities like carcinogenicity, neurotoxicity, pulmonotoxicity, reproductive toxicity, developmental toxicity, and metabolic toxicity. A huge body of evidence exists on the possible role of pesticide exposures in the elevated incidence of human diseases such as cancers, Alzheimer, Parkinson, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, asthma, bronchitis, infertility, birth defects, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, autism, diabetes, and obesity. Most of the disorders are induced by insecticides and herbicides most notably organophosphorus, organochlorines, phenoxyacetic acids, and triazine compounds.
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              Generalized linear models


                Author and article information

                Int J Environ Res Public Health
                Int J Environ Res Public Health
                International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
                08 June 2018
                June 2018
                : 15
                : 6
                : 1203
                [1 ]Departamento de Saúde Ambiental, Faculdade de Saúde Pública, Universidade de São Paulo, Av. Dr Arnaldo, 715, São Paulo, SP 01246-904, Brazil; lena@ 123456usp.br
                [2 ]Departamento de Patologia, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, Av. Dr Arnaldo, 455, sala 1155, São Paulo, SP 01246-903, Brazil; tmauad@ 123456usp.br (T.M.); luisfamato@ 123456gmail.com (L.F.A.-L.)
                [3 ]Pneumologia, Hospital das Clínicas, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, Av. Dr Enéas Carvalho de Aguiar, 44-Bloco II, 5 andar, São Paulo, SP 05403000, Brazil; joao.salge@ 123456incor.usp.br
                [4 ]Departamento de Epidemiologia, Faculdade de Saúde Pública, Universidade de São Paulo, Av. Dr Arnaldo, 715, São Paulo, SP 01246-904, Brazil; frediazq@ 123456msn.com
                [5 ]Centro de Tecnologia em Nanomateriais—CTNANO, Rua Prof. José Vieira de Mendonça, 1000, Belo Horizonte, MG 31310-260, Brazil; rspolti@ 123456hotmail.com
                [6 ]Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro—Campus Macaé, Av. Aloísio da Silva Gomes, 50, Macaé, RJ 27930-560, Brazil; rejanecmarques@ 123456globo.com
                [7 ]Instituto de Biofísica Carlos Chagas Filho, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Av. Carlos Chagas Filho 373-Bloco G-CCS, Ilha do Fundão, Rio de Janeiro, RJ 21941-902, Brazil; silva.danielesantos@ 123456gmail.com (D.S.S.); jeanrdg@ 123456biof.ufrj.br (J.R.D.G.)
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: rafael_buralli@ 123456usp.br ; Tel.: +55-11-3061-7894
                Author information
                © 2018 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

                : 27 April 2018
                : 01 June 2018

                Public health
                pesticides,spirometry,respiratory symptoms,cholinesterase,rural workers,family farmers
                Public health
                pesticides, spirometry, respiratory symptoms, cholinesterase, rural workers, family farmers


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