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      Balechinaand the new genusCucumeridiniumgen. nov. (Dinophyceae), unarmored dinoflagellates with thick cell coverings

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          Unexpected diversity of small eukaryotes in deep-sea Antarctic plankton.

          Phylogenetic information from ribosomal RNA genes directly amplified from the environment changed our view of the biosphere, revealing an extraordinary diversity of previously undetected prokaryotic lineages. Using ribosomal RNA genes from marine picoplankton, several new groups of bacteria and archaea have been identified, some of which are abundant. Little is known, however, about the diversity of the smallest planktonic eukaryotes, and available information in general concerns the phytoplankton of the euphotic region. Here we recover eukaryotes in the size fraction 0.2-5 microm from the aphotic zone (250-3,000 m deep) in the Antarctic polar front. The most diverse and relatively abundant were two new groups of alveolate sequences, related to dinoflagellates that are found at all studied depths. These may be important components of the microbial community in the deep ocean. Their phylogenetic position suggests a radiation early in the evolution of alveolates.
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            Phylogeny of some of the major genera of dinoflagellates based on ultrastructure and partial LSU rDNA sequence data, including the erection of three new genera of unarmoured dinoflagellates

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              MUST, a computer package of Management Utilities for Sequences and Trees.

              The MUST package is a phylogenetically oriented set of programs for data management and display, allowing one to handle both raw data (sequences) and results (trees, number of steps, bootstrap proportions). It is complementary to the main available software for phylogenetic analysis (PHYLIP, PAUP, HENNING86, CLUSTAL) with which it is fully compatible. The first part of MUST consists of the acquisition of new sequences, their storage, modification, and checking of sequence integrity in files of aligned sequences. In order to improve alignment, an editor function for aligned sequences offers numerous options, such as selection of subsets of sequences, display of consensus sequences, and search for similarities over small sequence fragments. For phylogenetic reconstruction, the choice of species and portions of sequences to be analyzed is easy and very rapid, permitting fast testing of numerous combinations of sequences and taxa. The resulting files can be formatted for most programs of tree construction. An interactive tree-display program recovers the output of all these programs. Finally, various modules allow an in-depth analysis of results, such as comparison of distance matrices, variation of bootstrap proportions with respect to various parameters or comparison of the number of steps per position. All presently available complete sequences of 28S rRNA are furnished aligned in the package. MUST therefore allows the management of all the operations required for phylogenetic reconstructions.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Journal of Phycology
                J. Phycol.
                Wiley
                00223646
                December 2015
                December 2015
                October 19 2015
                : 51
                : 6
                : 1088-1105
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Laboratory of Plankton Systems; Oceanographic Institute; University of São Paulo; Praça do Oceanográfico 191, Cidade Universitária Butantã São Paulo 05508-900 Brazil
                [2 ]Unité d'Ecologie; Systématique et Evolution; CNRS UMR 8079; Université Paris-Sud; Bâtiment 360 Orsay Cedex 91405 France
                [3 ]Hatami 5-20-13, Ondo-cho; Kure Hiroshima 737-1207 Japan
                Article
                10.1111/jpy.12346
                6010aac5-2058-4dab-86b4-af3d49ac6ccf
                © 2015

                http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/tdm_license_1.1

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