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      DNA barcode library for European Gelechiidae (Lepidoptera) suggests greatly underestimated species diversity

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          Abstract

          For the first time, a nearly complete barcode library for European Gelechiidae is provided. DNA barcode sequences (COI gene – cytochrome c oxidase 1) from 751 out of 865 nominal species, belonging to 105 genera, were successfully recovered. A total of 741 species represented by specimens with sequences ≥ 500bp and an additional ten species represented by specimens with shorter sequences were used to produce 53 NJ trees. Intraspecific barcode divergence averaged only 0.54% whereas distance to the Nearest-Neighbour species averaged 5.58%. Of these, 710 species possessed unique DNA barcodes, but 31 species could not be reliably discriminated because of barcode sharing or partial barcode overlap. Species discrimination based on the Barcode Index System (BIN) was successful for 668 out of 723 species which clustered from minimum one to maximum 22 unique BINs. Fifty-five species shared a BIN with up to four species and identification from DNA barcode data is uncertain. Finally, 65 clusters with a unique BIN remained unidentified to species level. These putative taxa, as well as 114 nominal species with more than one BIN, suggest the presence of considerable cryptic diversity, cases which should be examined in future revisionary studies.

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          MEGA X: Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis across Computing Platforms.

          The Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis (Mega) software implements many analytical methods and tools for phylogenomics and phylomedicine. Here, we report a transformation of Mega to enable cross-platform use on Microsoft Windows and Linux operating systems. Mega X does not require virtualization or emulation software and provides a uniform user experience across platforms. Mega X has additionally been upgraded to use multiple computing cores for many molecular evolutionary analyses. Mega X is available in two interfaces (graphical and command line) and can be downloaded from www.megasoftware.net free of charge.
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            Wolbachia: master manipulators of invertebrate biology.

            Wolbachia are common intracellular bacteria that are found in arthropods and nematodes. These alphaproteobacteria endosymbionts are transmitted vertically through host eggs and alter host biology in diverse ways, including the induction of reproductive manipulations, such as feminization, parthenogenesis, male killing and sperm-egg incompatibility. They can also move horizontally across species boundaries, resulting in a widespread and global distribution in diverse invertebrate hosts. Here, we review the basic biology of Wolbachia, with emphasis on recent advances in our understanding of these fascinating endosymbionts.
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              Genetic Patterns in European Geometrid Moths Revealed by the Barcode Index Number (BIN) System

              Background The geometrid moths of Europe are one of the best investigated insect groups in traditional taxonomy making them an ideal model group to test the accuracy of the Barcode Index Number (BIN) system of BOLD (Barcode of Life Datasystems), a method that supports automated, rapid species delineation and identification. Methodology/Principal Findings This study provides a DNA barcode library for 219 of the 249 European geometrid moth species (88%) in five selected subfamilies. The data set includes COI sequences for 2130 specimens. Most species (93%) were found to possess diagnostic barcode sequences at the European level while only three species pairs (3%) were genetically indistinguishable in areas of sympatry. As a consequence, 97% of the European species we examined were unequivocally discriminated by barcodes within their natural areas of distribution. We found a 1:1 correspondence between BINs and traditionally recognized species for 67% of these species. Another 17% of the species (15 pairs, three triads) shared BINs, while specimens from the remaining species (18%) were divided among two or more BINs. Five of these species are mixtures, both sharing and splitting BINs. For 82% of the species with two or more BINs, the genetic splits involved allopatric populations, many of which have previously been hypothesized to represent distinct species or subspecies. Conclusions/Significance This study confirms the effectiveness of DNA barcoding as a tool for species identification and illustrates the potential of the BIN system to characterize formal genetic units independently of an existing classification. This suggests the system can be used to efficiently assess the biodiversity of large, poorly known assemblages of organisms. For the moths examined in this study, cases of discordance between traditionally recognized species and BINs arose from several causes including overlooked species, synonymy, and cases where DNA barcodes revealed regional variation of uncertain taxonomic significance.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Zookeys
                Zookeys
                2
                urn:lsid:arphahub.com:pub:45048D35-BB1D-5CE8-9668-537E44BD4C7E
                urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:91BD42D4-90F1-4B45-9350-EEF175B1727A
                ZooKeys
                Pensoft Publishers
                1313-2989
                1313-2970
                2020
                24 March 2020
                : 921
                : 141-157
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Naturwissenschaftliche Sammlungen, Tiroler Landesmuseen Betriebsges.m.b.H., Innsbruck, Austria Tiroler Landesmuseen Betriebsges.m.b.H. Innsbruck Austria
                [2 ] Zoological Museum, Natural History Museum of Denmark, Copenhagen, Denmark Natural History Museum of Denmark Copenhagen Denmark
                [3 ] Natural History Museum, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway University of Oslo Oslo Norway
                [4 ] Kristiansand, Norway Unaffiliated Kristiansand Norway
                [5 ] Institute for Evolutionary Ecology of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kiev, Ukraine Institute for Evolutionary Ecology, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine Kiev Ukraine
                [6 ] Finnish Museum of Natural History, Zoology Unit, Helsinki, Finland Finnish Museum of Natural History Helsinki Finland
                [7 ] Canadian National Collection of Insects, Arachnids, and Nematodes, Ottawa Research and Development Centre, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Ottawa, Canada Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada Ottawa Canada
                [8 ] Department of Ecology and Genetics, University of Oulu, Finland University of Oulu Oulu Finland
                [9 ] Espoo, Finland Unaffiliated Espoo Finland
                [10 ] SNSB-Zoological State Collection, Munich, Germany Zoological State Collection Munich Germany
                [11 ] National Museum, Natural History Museum, Department of Entomology, Praha, Czech Republic Natural History Museum Prague Czech Republic
                [12 ] Landesmuseum Kärnten, Klagenfurt, Austria Landesmuseum Kärnten Klagenfurt am Wörthersee Austria
                [13 ] Centre for Biodiversity Genomics, University of Guelph, Guelph, Canada University of Guelph Guelph Canada
                Author notes
                Corresponding author: Peter Huemer ( p.huemer@ 123456tiroler-landesmuseen.at )

                Academic editor: Mark Metz

                Article
                49199
                10.3897/zookeys.921.49199
                7109146
                32256152
                60174998-2cfa-4a65-9235-e1d7db0b927f

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the CC0 Public Domain Dedication.

                Funding
                Funded by: Koneen Säätiö 501100005781 http://doi.org/10.13039/501100005781
                Categories
                Research Article
                Animalia
                Arthropoda
                Gelechiidae
                Gelechioidea
                Hexapoda
                Insecta
                Invertebrata
                Lepidoptera
                Biodiversity & Conservation
                Biogeography
                Genetics
                Systematics
                Cenozoic
                Europe

                Animal science & Zoology

                europe, cryptic diversity, dna barcoding, revision, species delimitation

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